AMANDA(8)                                                            AMANDA(8)


       amanda - Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver


       amdump config

       amflush [-f] config

       amcleanup config

       amrecover [config] [options]

       amrestore [options] tapedevice [hostname [diskname]]

       amlabel config label [slot slot]

       amcheck [options] config

       amadmin config command [options]

       amtape config command [options]

       amverify config

       amrmtape [options] config label

       amstatus config [options]

       amoverview config [options]

       amplot [options] amdump-files

       amreport [config] [options]

       amtoc [options] logfile

       amcheckdb config

       amgetconf [config] parameter


       AMANDA  is  the  ‘‘Advanced Maryland Automatic Network Disk Archiver’’.
       This manual page gives an overview of the AMANDA commands and  configu-
       ration files for quick reference.

       Here are all the AMANDA commands. Each one has its own manual page. See
       them for all the gory details.

       amdump Take care of automatic AMANDA backups. This is normally executed
              by  cron  on a computer called the tape server host and requests
              backups of file systems located on backup  clients. Amdump backs
              up  all disks in the disklist file (discussed below) to tape or,
              if there is a problem, to a special  holding   disk.  After  all
              backups  are done, amdump sends mail reporting failures and suc-

              Flush backups from the holding disk to tape. Amflush is used af-
              ter  amdump  has reported it could not write backups to tape for
              some reason. When this happens,  backups  stay  in  the  holding
              disk.  Run  amflush after the tape problem is corrected to write
              backups from the holding disk to tape.

              Clean up after an interrupted amdump. This command is only need-
              ed if amdump was unable to complete for some reason, usually be-
              cause the tape server host crashed while amdump was running.

              Provides an interactive interface to  browse  the  AMANDA  index
              files (backup image catalogues) and select which tapes to recov-
              er files from. It can also run amrestore and a  restore  program
              (e.g. tar) to actually recover the files.

              Read  an AMANDA tape, searching for requested backups. Amrestore
              is suitable for everything from interactive restores  of  single
              files to a full restore of all partitions on a failed disk.

              Write  an AMANDA format label onto a tape. All AMANDA tapes must
              be labeled with amlabel. Amdump and amflush will not write to an
              unlabeled tape (see TAPE MANAGEMENT below).

              Verify  the  correct tape is mounted and all file systems on all
              backup client systems are ready to be backed up.  Often  run  by
              cron before amdump to generate a mail warning that backups might
              fail unless corrective action is taken.

              Take care of administrative tasks like finding out  which  tapes
              are  needed  to  restore  a filesystem, forcing hosts to do full
              backups of selected disks and looking at schedule balance infor-

       amtape Take  care  of tape changer control operations like loading par-
              ticular tapes, ejecting tapes  and  scanning  the  tape  storage

              Check AMANDA backup tapes for errors.

              Delete a tape from the AMANDA databases.

              Report the status of a running or completed amdump.

              Display a chart of hosts and file systems backed up every run.

       amplot Generate  utilization  plots of AMANDA runs for performance tun-

              Generate an AMANDA summary E-mail report.

       amtoc  Generate table of content files for AMANDA tapes.

              Verify every tape  AMANDA  knows  about  is  consistent  in  the

              Look up parameters in the AMANDA configuration file.


       There  are three user-editable files that control the behavior of AMAN-
       DA. The first is amanda.conf, the main configuration file. It  contains
       parameters  to  customize  AMANDA  for the site. Second is the disklist
       file, which lists hosts and disk partitions to back up.  Third  is  the
       tapelist file, which lists tapes that are currently active. These files
       are described in more detail in the following sections.

       All files are stored  in  individual  configuration  directories  under
       /usr/local/etc/amanda/. A site will often have more than one configura-
       tion. For example, it might have a normal  configuration  for  everyday
       backups and an archive configuration for infrequent full archival back-
       ups. The configuration files would be stored under directories /usr/lo-
       cal/etc/amanda/normal/  and /usr/local/etc/amanda/archive/, respective-
       ly. Part of the job of an AMANDA administrator is to  create,  populate
       and maintain these directories.

       All  log and database files generated by AMANDA go in corresponding di-
       rectories somewhere. The exact location is  controlled  by  entries  in
       amanda.conf. A typical location would be under /var/adm/amanda. For the
       above example,  the  files  might  go  in  /var/adm/amanda/normal/  and

       As  log files are no longer needed (no longer contain relevant informa-
       tion), AMANDA cycles them out in various ways, depending on the type of

       Detailed  information  about  amdump runs are stored in files named am-
       dump.NN where NN is a sequence number, with 1  being  the  most  recent
       file.  Amdump  rotates  these  files each run, keeping roughly the last
       tapecycle (see below) worth of them.

       The file used by  amreport  to  generate  the  mail  summary  is  named
       log.YYYYMMDD.NN where YYYYMMDD is the datestamp of the start of the am-
       dump run and NN is a sequence number started at 0. At the end  of  each
       amdump run, log files for runs whose tapes have been reused are renamed
       into a subdirectory of the main log directory (see the logdir parameter
       below)  named  oldlog.  It  is up to the AMANDA administrator to remove
       them from this directory when desired.

       Index (backup image catalogue) files older than the full dump  matching
       the  oldest backup image for a given client and disk are removed by am-
       dump at the end of each run.


       There are a number of configuration parameters that control the  behav-
       ior  of  the  AMANDA programs. All have default values, so you need not
       specify the parameter in amanda.conf if the default is suitable.

       Lines starting with # are ignored, as are blank lines. Comments may  be
       placed on a line with a directive by starting the comment with a #. The
       remainder of the line is ignored.

       Keywords are case insensitive, i.e. mailto and MailTo are  treated  the

       Integer arguments may have one of the following (case insensitive) suf-
       fixes, some of which have a multiplier effect:

       b byte bytes
              Some number of bytes.

       bps    Some number of bytes per second.

       k kb kbyte kbytes kilobyte kilobytes
              Some number of kilobytes (bytes*1024).

       kps kbps
              Some number of kilobytes per second (bytes*1024).

       m mb meg mbyte mbytes megabyte megabytes
              Some number of megabytes (bytes*1024*1024).

       mps mbps
              Some number of megabytes per second (bytes*1024*1024).

       g gb gbyte gbytes gigabyte gigabytes
              Some number of gigabytes (bytes*1024*1024*1024).

       tape tapes
              Some number of tapes.

       day days
              Some number of days.

       week weeks
              Some number of weeks (days*7).

               .RS .Sh "Note" The value inf may be used in most  places  where
              an integer is expected to mean an infinite amount. Boolean argu-
              ments may have any of the values y, yes, t, true or on to  indi-
              cate a true state, or n, no, f, false or off to indicate a false
              state. If no argument is given, true is assumed. .RE

       org  string
              Default: daily. A descriptive name for the  configuration.  This
              string  appears in the Subject line of mail reports. Each AMANDA
              configuration should have a different string to  keep  mail  re-
              ports distinct.

       mailto  string
              Default:  operators.  A  space  separated list of recipients for
              mail reports.

       dumpcycle  int
              Default: 10 days. The number of days in the backup  cycle.  Each
              disk will get a full backup at least this often. Setting this to
              zero tries to do a full backup each run.

               .RS .Sh "Note" This parameter may also be  set  in  a  specific
              dumptype  (see below). This value sets the default for all dump-
              types so must appear in amanda.conf before any dumptypes are de-
              fined. .RE

       runspercycle  int
              Default: same as dumpcycle. The number of amdump runs in dumpcy-
              cle days. A value of 0 means the same value as dumpcycle. A val-
              ue  of -1 means guess the number of runs from the tapelist file,
              which is the number of tapes used in the last dumpcycle  days  /

       tapecycle  int
              Default:  15 tapes. Typically tapes are used by AMANDA in an or-
              dered rotation. The tapecycle parameter defines the size of that
              rotation.  The  number  of tapes in rotation must be larger than
              the number of tapes required for a complete dump cycle (see  the
              dumpcycle parameter).

              This  is calculated by multiplying the number of amdump runs per
              dump cycle (runspercycle parameter) times the  number  of  tapes
              used  per  run (runtapes parameter). Typically two to four times
              this calculated number of tapes are in rotation. While AMANDA is
              always  willing to use a new tape in its rotation, it refuses to
              reuse a tape until at least ’tapecycle -1’ number of other tapes
              have been used.

              It is considered good administrative practice to set the tapecy-
              cle parameter slightly lower than the actual number of tapes  in
              rotation. This allows the administrator to more easily cope with
              damaged or misplaced tapes or schedule adjustments that call for
              slight adjustments in the rotation order.

       dumpuser  string
              Default:  amanda. The login name AMANDA uses to run the backups.
              The backup client hosts must allow access from the  tape  server
              host  as this user via .rhosts or .amandahosts, depending on how
              the AMANDA software was built.

       printer string
              Printer to  use  when  doing  tape  labels.  See  the  lbl-templ
              tapetype option.

       tapedev string
              Default:  /dev/nst0. The path name of the non-rewinding tape de-
              vice. Non-rewinding tape device names often have an ’n’  in  the
              name,  e.g.  /dev/rmt/0mn, however this is operating system spe-
              cific and you should consult  that  documentation  for  detailed
              naming information.

              If a tape changer is configured (see the tpchanger option), this
              option might not be used.

              If the null output driver is selected (see  the  OUTPUT  DRIVERS
              section  later  for  more  information), programs such as amdump
              will run normally but all  images  will  be  thrown  away.  This
              should only be used for debugging and testing, and probably only
              with the record option set to no.

       rawtapedev string
              Default: /dev/null. The path name of the raw tape  device.  This
              is only used if AMANDA is compiled for Linux machines with flop-
              py tapes and is needed for QIC volume table operations.

       tpchanger string
              Default: none. The name of the tape changer. If a  tape  changer
              is  not  configured,  this option is not used and should be com-
              mented out of the configuration file.

              If a tape changer is  configured,  choose  one  of  the  changer
              scripts (e.g. chg-scsi) and enter that here.

       changerdev string
              Default:  /dev/null. A tape changer configuration parameter. Us-
              age depends on the particular changer defined with the tpchanger

       changerfile string
              Default: /usr/adm/amanda/log/changer-status. A tape changer con-
              figuration parameter. Usage depends on  the  particular  changer
              defined with the tpchanger option.

       runtapes int
              Default: 1. The maximum number of tapes used in a single run. If
              a tape changer is not configured, this option is  not  used  and
              should be commented out of the configuration file.

              If a tape changer is configured, this may be set larger than one
              to let AMANDA write to more than one tape.

              Note that this is an upper bound on the  number  of  tapes,  and
              AMANDA may use less.

              Also  note that as of this release, AMANDA does not support true
              tape overflow. When it reaches the end of one tape,  the  backup
              image  AMANDA was processing starts over again on the next tape.

       maxdumpsize int
              Default: runtapes*tape_length. Maximum number of bytes the plan-
              ner will schedule for a run.

       taperalgo [first|firstfit|largest|largestfit|smallest|last]
              Default: first. The algorithm used to choose which dump image to
              send to the taper.

              first  First in, first out.

                     The first dump image that will fit on the current tape.

                     The largest dump image.

                     The largest dump image that will fit on the current tape.

                     The smallest dump image.

              last   Last in, first out.

       labelstr  string
              Default:  .*.  The tape label constraint regular expression. All
              tape labels generated (see amlabel(8)) and used by this configu-
              ration must match the regular expression. If multiple configura-
              tions are run from the same tape server host, it is  helpful  to
              set  their  labels  to  different  strings  (for example, ‘‘DAI-
              LY[0-9][0-9]*’’ vs. ‘‘ARCHIVE[0-9][0-9]*’’) to avoid overwriting
              each other’s tapes.

       tapetype  string
              Default: EXABYTE. The type of tape drive associated with tapedev
              or tpchanger. This refers to one of the defined tapetypes in the
              config  file (see below), which specify various tape parameters,
              like the length, filemark size, and speed of the tape media  and

       ctimeout int
              Default:  30  seconds.  Maximum amount of time that amcheck will
              wait for each client host.

       dtimeout int
              Default: 1800 seconds. Amount of idle time per disk on  a  given
              client that a dumper running from within amdump will wait before
              it fails with a data timeout error.

       etimeout int
              Default: 300 seconds. Amount of time per disk on a given  client
              that  the  planner step of amdump will wait to get the dump size
              estimates. For instance, with the default  of  300  seconds  and
              four  disks  on client A, planner will wait up to 20 minutes for
              that machine. A negative value will be interpreted  as  a  total
              amount of time to wait per client instead of per disk.

       netusage int
              Default:  300  Kbps.  The maximum network bandwidth allocated to
              AMANDA, in Kbytes per second. See also the interface section.

       inparallel int
              Default: 10. The maximum number of backups that AMANDA will  at-
              tempt  to  run  in  parallel.  AMANDA  will stay within the con-
              straints of network bandwidth and holding disk space  available,
              so  it  doesn’t  hurt  to  set this number a bit high. Some con-
              tention can occur with larger numbers of backups, but  this  ef-
              fect is relatively small on most systems.

       displayunit "k|m|g|t"
              Default:  "k".  The  unit  used  to  print many numbers, k=kilo,
              m=mega, g=giga, t=tera.

       dumporder string
              Default: tttTTTTTTT. The priority order of each dumper:

              ·  s: smallest size

              ·  S: largest size

              ·  t: smallest time

              ·  T: largest time

              ·  b: smallest bandwidth

              ·  B: largest bandwidth

       maxdumps int
              Default: 1. The maximum number of backups  from  a  single  host
              that AMANDA will attempt to run in parallel. See also the inpar-
              allel option.

              Note that this parameter may also be set in a specific  dumptype
              (see  below).  This  value sets the default for all dumptypes so
              must appear in amanda.conf before any dumptypes are defined.

       bumpsize int
              Default: 10 Mbytes. The minimum savings required to  trigger  an
              automatic bump from one incremental level to the next. If AMANDA
              determines that the next higher backup level will be  this  much
              smaller  than  the current level, it will do the next level. See
              also the bumpmult option.

       bumpmult  float
              Default: 1.5. The bump size multiplier. AMANDA multiplies  bump-
              size  by  this  factor  for  each  level.  This  prevents active
              filesystems from bumping too much by making it harder to bump to
              the next level. For example, with the default bumpsize and bump-
              mult set to 2.0, the bump threshold will be 10 Mbytes for  level
              one,  20 Mbytes for level two, 40 Mbytes for level three, and so

       bumpdays  int
              Default: 2 days. To insure redundancy in the dumps, AMANDA keeps
              filesystems  at the same incremental level for at least bumpdays
              days, even if the other bump threshold criteria are met.

       diskfile  string
              Default: disklist. The file name for the disklist  file  holding
              client hosts, disks and other client dumping information.

       infofile  string
              Default: /usr/adm/amanda/curinfo. The file or directory name for
              the historical information database. If AMANDA was configured to
              use  DBM  databases,  this is the base file name for them. If it
              was configured to use text  formated  databases  (the  default),
              this  is  the base directory and within here will be a directory
              per client, then a directory per disk, then a text file of data.

       logdir  string
              Default:  /usr/adm/amanda.  The directory for the amdump and log

       indexdir  string
              Default /usr/adm/amanda/index. The directory where  index  files
              (backup  image catalogues) are stored. Index files are only gen-
              erated for filesystems whose dumptype has the index  option  en-

       tapelist  string
              Default:  tapelist.  The file name for the active tapelist file.
              AMANDA maintains this file with information about the active set
              of tapes.

       tapebufs  int
              Default: 20. The number of buffers used by the taper process run
              by amdump and amflush to hold data as it is read from  the  net-
              work or disk before it is written to tape. Each buffer is a lit-
              tle larger than 32 KBytes and is held in a shared memory region.

       reserve  number
              Default:  100. The part of holding-disk space that should be re-
              served for incremental backups if  no  tape  is  available,  ex-
              pressed  as  a  percentage  of  the available holding-disk space
              (0-100). By default, when there is no tape to write to, degraded
              mode  (incremental)  backups  will  be  performed to the holding
              disk. If full backups should also be allowed in this  case,  the
              amount of holding disk space reserved for incrementals should be

       autoflush  bool
              Default: off. Whether an amdump run will flush the dump  already
              on holding disk to tape.

       amrecover_do_fsf  bool
              Default: off. Amrecover will call amrestore with the -f flag for
              faster positioning of the tape.

       amrecover_check_label  bool
              Default: off. Amrecover will call amrestore with the -l flag  to
              check the label.

       amrecover_changer  string
              Default:  ’’. Amrecover will use the changer if you use ’settape
              <string>’ and that string is the same as  the  amrecover_changer

       columnspec  string
              Defines  the  width  of columns amreport should use. String is a
              comma (’,’) separated list of triples. Each triple  consists  of
              three  parts  which  are  separated  by a equal sign (’=’) and a
              colon (’:’) (see the example). These three parts specify:

              ·  the name of the column, which may be:

                 ·  Compress (compression ratio)

                 ·  Disk (client disk name)

                 ·  DumpRate (dump rate in KBytes/sec)

                 ·  DumpTime (total dump time in hours:minutes)

                 ·  HostName (client host name)

                 ·  Level (dump level)

                 ·  OrigKB (original image size in KBytes)

                 ·  OutKB (output image size in KBytes)

                 ·  TapeRate (tape writing rate in KBytes/sec)

                 ·  TapeTime (total tape time in hours:minutes)

              ·  the amount of space to display before the column (used to get
                 whitespace between columns).

              ·  the  width  of the column itself. If set to a negative value,
                 the width will be calculated on demand to fit the largest en-
                 try in this column.

              Here is an example:

              columnspec "Disk=1:18,HostName=0:10,OutKB=1:7"
              The above will display the disk information in 18 characters and
              put one space before it. The hostname column will be 10  charac-
              ters wide with no space to the left. The output KBytes column is
              seven characters wide with one space before it.

       includefile  string
              Default: none. The name of an AMANDA configuration file  to  in-
              clude  within  the  current  file. Useful for sharing dumptypes,
              tapetypes and interface  definitions  among  several  configura-


       The  amanda.conf  file  may  define  one  or more holding disks used as
       buffers to hold backup images before they are written to tape. The syn-
       tax is:

       holdingdisk name {
           holdingdisk-option holdingdisk-value

       Name is a logical name for this holding disk.

       The options and values are:

       comment  string
              Default: none. A comment string describing this holding disk.

       directory  disk
              Default: /dumps/amanda. The path to this holding area.

       use  int
              Default:  0 Gb. Amount of space that can be used in this holding
              disk area. If the value is zero, all available space on the file
              system  is  used.  If the value is negative, AMANDA will use all
              available space minus that value.

       chunksize  int
              Default: 1 Gb. Holding disk chunk size. Dumps  larger  than  the
              specified  size  will  be stored in multiple holding disk files.
              The size of each chunk will not exceed the specified value. How-
              ever,  even  though  dump  images are split in the holding disk,
              they are concatenated as they are written to tape, so each  dump
              image still corresponds to a single continuous tape section.

              If  0  is  specified,  AMANDA will create holding disk chunks as
              large as ((INT_MAX/1024)-64) Kbytes.

              Each holding disk chunk includes a 32 Kbyte header, so the mini-
              mum chunk size is 64 Kbytes (but that would be really silly).

              Operating  systems  that are limited to a maximum file size of 2
              Gbytes actually cannot handle files that large. They must be  at
              least  one  byte  less than 2 Gbytes. Since AMANDA works with 32
              Kbyte blocks, and to handle the final read at  the  end  of  the
              chunk,  the  chunk  size  should  be  at least 64 Kbytes (2 * 32
              Kbytes) smaller than the maximum file size, e.g. 2047 Mbytes.


       The amanda.conf file may define multiple sets of backup options and re-
       fer  to  them  by name from the disklist file. For instance, one set of
       options might be defined for file systems that can  benefit  from  high
       compression,  another  set that does not compress well, another set for
       file systems that should always get a full backup and so on.

       A set of backup options are entered in a dumptype section, which  looks
       like this:

       define dumptype name {
           dumptype-option dumptype-value

       Name  is  the name of this set of backup options. It is referenced from
       the disklist file.

       Some of the options in a dumptype section are the same as those in  the
       main  part of amanda.conf. The main option value is used to set the de-
       fault for all dumptype sections. For instance, setting dumpcycle to  50
       in  the main part of the config file causes all following dumptype sec-
       tions to start with that value, but the value may be changed on a  sec-
       tion  by  section  basis.  Changes to variables in the main part of the
       config file must be done before (earlier in the file) any dumptypes are

       The dumptype options and values are:

       auth  string
              Default:  bsd.  Type  of  authorization  to perform between tape
              server and backup client hosts. May be krb4 to  use  Kerberos-IV

       comment  string
              Default:  none.  A  comment string describing this set of backup

       comprate float [, float ]
              Default: 0.50, 0.50. The expected full and incremental  compres-
              sion  factor  for dumps. It is only used if AMANDA does not have
              any history information on compression rates for  a  filesystem,
              so  should not usually need to be set. However, it may be useful
              for the first time a very large filesystem that compresses  very
              little is backed up.

       compress [client|server]  string
              Default:  client  fast. If AMANDA does compression of the backup
              images, it can do so either on the backup client host before  it
              crosses  the  network or on the tape server host as it goes from
              the network into the holding disk or to tape. Which place to  do
              compression  (if at all) depends on how well the dump image usu-
              ally compresses, the speed and load on  the  client  or  server,
              network  capacity,  holding  disk capacity, availability of tape
              hardware compression, etc.

              For either type of compression, AMANDA also allows the selection
              of  two  styles  of  compression.  Best  is the best compression
              available, often at the expense of CPU overhead. Fast  is  often
              not  as  good  a compression as best, but usually less CPU over-

              So the compress options line may be one of:

              ·  compress none

              ·  compress [client] fast

              ·  compress [client] best

              ·  compress server fast

              ·  compress server best

              Note that some tape devices do compression and this  option  has
              nothing to do with whether that is used. If hardware compression
              is used (usually via a particular tape device  name  or  mt  op-
              tion), AMANDA (software) compression should be disabled.

       dumpcycle  int
              Default:  10  days. The number of days in the backup cycle. Each
              disk using this set of options will get a full backup  at  least
              this  often. Setting this to zero tries to do a full backup each

       exclude [ list|file ][[optional][ append ][  string ]+]
              Default: file. There are two exclude lists, exclude file and ex-
              clude  list. With exclude file , the string is a GNU-tar exclude
              expression. With exclude list , the string is a file name on the
              client containing GNU-tar exclude expressions.

              All  exclude expressions are concatenated in one file and passed
              to GNU-tar as an --exclude-from argument.

              With the append keyword, the string is appended to  the  current
              list, without it, the string overwrites the list.

              If optional is specified for exclude list, then amcheck will not
              complain if the file doesn’t exist or is not readable.

              For exclude list, if the file name is relative,  the  disk  name
              being backed up is prepended. So if this is entered:

                  exclude list ‘‘.amanda.excludes’’
              the actual file used would be /var/.amanda.excludes for a backup
              of /var, /usr/local/.amanda.excludes for a backup of /usr/local,
              and so on.

       holdingdisk  boolean
              Default:  yes.  Whether  a holding disk should be used for these
              backups or whether they should go directly to tape. If the hold-
              ing  disk  is  a  portion  of another file system that AMANDA is
              backing up, that file system should refer  to  a  dumptype  with
              holdingdisk  set to no to avoid backing up the holding disk into

       ignore  boolean
              Default: no. Whether disks  associated  with  this  backup  type
              should  be  backed  up  or  not.  This option is useful when the
              disklist file is shared among several  configurations,  some  of
              which should not back up all the listed file systems.

       include [ list|file ][[optional][ append ][  string ]+]
              Default: file ".". There are two include lists, include file and
              include list. With include file , the string is a  glob  expres-
              sion.  With  include  list  ,  the  string is a file name on the
              client containing glob expressions.

              All include expressions are expanded by AMANDA, concatenated  in
              one  file and passed to GNU-tar as a --files-from argument. They
              must start with "./" and contain no other "/".

              With the append keyword, the string is appended to  the  current
              list, without it, the string overwrites the list.

              If optional is specified for include list, then amcheck will not
              complain if the file doesn’t exist or is not readable.

              For include list, If the file name is relative,  the  disk  name
              being backed up is prepended.

       index  boolean
              Default:  no.  Whether an index (catalogue) of the backup should
              be generated and saved in indexdir. These catalogues are used by
              the amrecover utility.

       kencrypt  boolean
              Default:  no.  Whether  the  backup image should be encrypted by
              Kerberos as it is sent across the network from the backup client
              host to the tape server host.

       maxdumps  int
              Default:  1.  The  maximum  number of backups from a single host
              that AMANDA will attempt to run in parallel. See also  the  main
              section parameter inparallel.

       maxpromoteday  int
              Default:  10000.  The maximum number of day for a promotion, set
              it 0 if you don’t want promotion, set it to 1 or 2 if your disks
              get overpromoted.

       priority  string
              Default:  medium. When there is no tape to write to, AMANDA will
              do incremental backups in priority order to  the  holding  disk.
              The priority may be high (2). medium (1), low (0) or a number of
              your choice.

       program  string
              Default: DUMP. The type of backup to perform. Valid  values  are
              DUMP  for the native operating system backup program, and GNUTAR
              to use GNU-tar or to do PC backups using Samba.

       record  boolean
              Default: yes. Whether to ask the backup program  to  update  its
              database  (e.g.  /etc/dumpdates for DUMP or /usr/local/var/aman-
              da/gnutar-lists for GNUTAR) of time stamps. This is normally en-
              abled  for  daily  backups  and turned off for periodic archival

       skip-full  boolean
              Default: no. If true and planner has scheduled  a  full  backup,
              these  disks  will  be  skipped,  and full backups should be run
              off-line on these days. It was reported that AMANDA only  sched-
              ules  level 1 incrementals in this configuration; this is proba-
              bly a bug.

       skip-incr  boolean
              Default: no. If true and planner has  scheduled  an  incremental
              backup, these disks will be skipped.

       starttime  int
              Default:  none.  Backups will not start until after this time of
              day. The value should be hh*100+mm, e.g. 6:30PM (18:30) would be
              entered as 1830.

       strategy  string
              Default:  standard.  Strategy to use when planning what level of
              backup to run next. Values are:

              The standard AMANDA schedule.

       nofull Never do full backups, only level 1 incrementals.

       noinc  Never do incremental backups, only full dumps.

       skip   Never do backups (useful when sharing the disklist file).

              Only do incremental dumps. amadmin force should be used to  tell
              AMANDA  that a full dump has been performed off-line, so that it
              resets to level 1. It is similar to skip-full, but with incronly
              full  dumps may be scheduled manually. Unfortunately, it appears
              that AMANDA will perform full backups with  this  configuration,
              which is probably a bug.

       The following dumptype entries are predefined by AMANDA:

       define dumptype no-compress {
           compress none
       define dumptype compress-fast {
           compress client fast
       define dumptype compress-best {
           compress client best
       define dumptype srvcompress {
           compress server fast
       define dumptype bsd-auth {
           auth bsd
       define dumptype krb4-auth {
           auth krb4
       define dumptype no-record {
           record no
       define dumptype no-hold {
           holdingdisk no
       define dumptype no-full {
           skip-full yes

       In  addition  to options in a dumptype section, one or more other dump-
       type names may be entered, which make  this  dumptype  inherit  options
       from  other  previously  defined  dumptypes. For instance, two sections
       might be the same except for the record option:

       define dumptype normal {
           comment "Normal backup, no compression, do indexing"
           index yes
           maxdumps 2
       define dumptype testing {
           comment "Test backup, no compression, do indexing, no recording"
           record no

       AMANDA provides a dumptype named global in the sample amanda.conf  file
       that  all  dumptypes  should  reference. This provides an easy place to
       make changes that will affect every dumptype.


       The amanda.conf file may define multiple types of tape  media  and  de-
       vices.  The  information  is entered in a tapetype section, which looks
       like this in the config file:

       define tapetype name {
           tapetype-option tapetype-value

       Name is the name of this type of tape medium/device. It  is  referenced
       from the tapetype option in the main part of the config file.

       The tapetype options and values are:

       comment  string
              Default:  none. A comment string describing this set of tape in-

       filemark  int
              Default: 1000 bytes. How large a file mark (tape mark) is,  mea-
              sured  in  bytes.  If the size is only known in some linear mea-
              surement (e.g. inches), convert it to  bytes  using  the  device

       length  int
              Default: 2000 kbytes. How much data will fit on a tape.

              Note  that  this  value is only used by AMANDA to schedule which
              backups will be run. Once the backups start, AMANDA will contin-
              ue to write to a tape until it gets an error, regardless of what
              value is entered for length (but see the OUTPUT DRIVERS  section
              later for exceptions).

       blocksize  int
              Default:  32.  How much data will be written in each tape record
              expressed in KiloBytes. The tape record size (=  blocksize)  can
              not be reduced below the default 32 KBytes. The parameter block-
              size can only be raised if AMANDA was compiled with the  config-
              ure  option  --with-maxtapeblocksize=N set with "N" greater than
              32 during configure.

       file-pad  boolean
              Default: true. If true, every record, including the last one  in
              the file, will have the same length. This matches the way AMANDA
              wrote tapes prior to the availability of this parameter. It  may
              also be useful on devices that only support a fixed blocksize.

              Note that the last record on the tape probably includes trailing
              null byte padding, which will be passed back to  gzip,  compress
              or the restore program. Most programs just ignore this (although
              possibly with a warning).

              If this parameter is false, the last record in  a  file  may  be
              shorter  than  the  block  size.  The file will contain the same
              amount of data the dump program generated, without trailing null
              byte  padding. When read, the same amount of data that was writ-
              ten will be returned.

       speed  int
              Default: 200 bps. How fast the drive will accept data, in  bytes
              per second. This parameter is NOT currently used by AMANDA.

       lbl-templ  string
              A  PostScript template file used by amreport to generate labels.
              Several sample files are provided with the AMANDA sources in the
              example  directory. See the amreport(8) man page for more infor-

       In addition to options, another tapetype name  may  be  entered,  which
       makes  this  tapetype  inherit  options  from another tapetype. For in-
       stance, the only difference between a DLT4000  tape  drive  using  Com-
       pact-III  tapes  and  one  using  Compact-IV tapes is the length of the
       tape. So they could be entered as:

       define tapetype DLT4000-III {
           comment "DLT4000 tape drives with Compact-III tapes"
           length 12500 mbytes         # 10 Gig tapes with some compression
           filemark 2000 kbytes
           speed 1536 kps
       define tapetype DLT4000-IV {
           comment "DLT4000 tape drives with Compact-IV tapes"
           length 25000 mbytes         # 20 Gig tapes with some compression


       The amanda.conf file may define multiple types of  network  interfaces.
       The  information  is  entered in an interface section, which looks like

       define interface name {
           interface-option interface-value

       name is the name of this type of network interface.  It  is  referenced
       from the disklist file.

       Note  that these sections define network interface characteristics, not
       the actual interface that will be used. Nor do they  impose  limits  on
       the bandwidth that will actually be taken up by AMANDA. AMANDA computes
       the estimated bandwidth each file system backup will take based on  the
       estimated  size  and  time,  then  compares that plus any other running
       backups with the limit as another of the criteria when deciding whether
       to  start  the backup. Once a backup starts, AMANDA will use as much of
       the network as it can leaving throttling up to the operating system and
       network hardware.

       The interface options and values are:

       comment  string
              Default:  none.  A comment string describing this set of network

       use  int
              Default: 300 Kbps. The speed of the interface in Kbytes per sec-

       In  addition  to  options, another interface name may be entered, which
       makes this interface inherit options from another interface. At the mo-
       ment, this is of little use.


       The  disklist  file determines which disks will be backed up by AMANDA.
       The file usually contains one line per disk:

       hostname diskname [diskdevice] dumptype [spindle [interface] ]

       All pairs [ hostname diskname ] must be unique.

       Lines starting with # are ignored, as are blank lines. The fields  have
       the following meanings:

              The  name of the host to be backed up. If diskdevice refers to a
              PC share, this is the host AMANDA will run the  Samba  smbclient
              program on to back up the share.

              The  name  of  the  disk  (a  label). In most case, you set your
              diskname to the diskdevice and you don’t set the diskdevice.  If
              you want multiple entries with the same diskdevice, you must set
              a different diskname for each entry. It’s the diskname that  you
              use on the commandline for any AMANDA command. Look at the exam-
              ple/disklist file for example.

              Default: same as diskname. The name of the  disk  device  to  be
              backed  up.  It may be a full device name, a device name without
              the /dev/ prefix, e.g. sd0a, or a mount point such as /usr.

              It may also refer to a PC share by starting the  name  with  two
              (forward)  slashes,  e.g. //some-pc/home. In this case, the pro-
              gram option in the associated dumptype must be entered  as  GNU-
              TAR.  It  is  the  combination of the double slash disk name and
              program GNUTAR in the dumptype that triggers the use of Samba.

              Refers to a dumptype defined in the amanda.conf file.  Dumptypes
              specify  backup  related parameters, such as whether to compress
              the backups, whether to record backup results in /etc/dumpdates,
              the disk’s relative priority, etc.

              Default:  -1.  A  number  used to balance backup load on a host.
              AMANDA will not run multiple backups at the  same  time  on  the
              same spindle, unless the spindle number is -1, which means there
              is no spindle restriction.

              Default: local. The name of a network  interface  definition  in
              the amanda.conf file, used to balance network load.

       Instead of naming a dumptype, it is possible to define one in-line, en-
       closing dumptype options within curly braces, one per line, just like a
       dumptype  definition  in  amanda.conf. Since pre-existing dumptypes are
       valid option names, this syntax may be used to customize dumptypes  for
       particular disks.

       A line break must follow the left curly bracket.

       For  instance,  if  a dumptype named normal is used for most disks, but
       use of the holding disk needs to be disabled for the file  system  that
       holds it, this would work instead of defining a new dumptype:

       hostname diskname [ diskdevice ] {
         holdingdisk no
       } [ spindle [ interface ] ]


       The  tapelist  file contains the list of tapes in active use. This file
       is maintained entirely by AMANDA and should not be  created  or  edited
       during normal operation. It contains lines of the form:

       YYYYMMDD label flags

       Where  YYYYMMDD  is the date the tape was written, label is a label for
       the tape as written by amlabel and flags tell AMANDA whether  the  tape
       may be reused, etc (see the reuse options of amadmin).

       Amdump  and  amflush will refuse to write to an unlabeled tape, or to a
       labeled tape that is considered active. There must be more tapes in ac-
       tive  rotation  (see  the  tapecycle option) than there are runs in the
       backup cycle (see the dumpcycle option) to prevent overwriting a backup
       image that would be needed to do a full recovery.


       The  normal value for the tapedev parameter, or for what a tape changer
       returns, is a full path name to a non-rewinding tape  device,  such  as
       /dev/nst0  or  /dev/rmt/0mn  or /dev/nst0.1 or whatever conventions the
       operating system uses. AMANDA  provides  additional  application  level
       drivers  that  support non-traditional tape-simulations or features. To
       access a specific output driver, set tapedev (or configure your changer
       to  return) a string of the form driver:driver-info where driver is one
       of the supported drivers and driver-info is optional additional  infor-
       mation needed by the driver.

       The supported drivers are:

       tape   This  is  the default driver. The driver-info is the tape device
              name. Entering
              tapedev /dev/rmt/0mn
               is really a short hand for
              tapedev tape:/dev/rmt/0mn

       null   This driver throws away anything written to it and  returns  EOF
              for any reads except a special case is made for reading a label,
              in which case a ‘‘fake’’ value is returned  that  AMANDA  checks
              for and allows through regardless of what you have set in label-
              str. The driver-info field is not used and may be left blank:

              tapedev null:

              The length value from the associated tapetype is used  to  limit
              the amount of data written. When the limit is reached, the driv-
              er will simulate end of tape.


              This driver should only be used for debugging and  testing,  and
              probably only with the record option set to no.

       rait   Redundant Array of Inexpensive (?) Tapes. Reads and writes tapes
              mounted on multiple drives by  spreading  the  data  across  N-1
              drives  and  using  the last drive for a checksum. See docs/RAIT
              for more information.

              The driver-info field describes the devices to use. Curly braces
              indicate multiple replacements in the string. For instance:

              tapedev rait:/dev/rmt/tps0d{4,5,6}n

              would use the following devices:

              /dev/rmt/tps0d4n  /dev/rmt/tps0d5n  /dev/rmt/tps0d6n

       file   This  driver emulates a tape device with a set of files in a di-
              rectory. The driver-info field must be the name of  an  existing
              directory. The driver will test for a subdirectory of that named
              data and return offline until it is present. When  present,  the
              driver  uses  two  files  in the data subdirectory for each tape
              file. One contains the actual data. The  other  contains  record
              length information.

              The driver uses a file named status in the file device directory
              to hold driver status information, such as tape position. If not
              present,  the  driver will create it as though the device is re-

              The length value from the associated tapetype is used  to  limit
              the amount of data written. When the limit is reached, the driv-
              er will simulate end of tape.

              One way to use this driver with a real device such as a CD-writ-
              er  is to create a directory for the file device and one or more
              other directories for the actual data. Create  a  symlink  named
              data  in  the file directory to one of the data directories. Set
              the tapetype length to whatever the medium will hold.

              When AMANDA fills the file device, remove the symlink  and  (op-
              tionally)  create  a  new symlink to another data area. Use a CD
              writer software package to burn the image from  the  first  data

              To read the CD, mount it and create the data symlink in the file
              device directory.


       AMANDA processes on the tape server host run as the dumpuser user list-
       ed  in  amanda.conf.  When  they connect to a backup client, they do so
       with an AMANDA-specific protocol. They do not, for instance, use rsh or
       ssh directly.

       On  the  client side, the amandad daemon validates the connection using
       one of several methods, depending on how it was compiled and on options
       it is passed:

              Even  though  AMANDA  does not use rsh, it can use .rhosts-style
              authentication and a .rhosts file.

              This is essentially the same as .rhosts authentication except  a
              different  file,  with  almost the same format, is used. This is
              the default mechanism built into AMANDA.

              The format of the .amandahosts file is:

              hostname [ username ]

              If username is ommitted, it defaults to the user  running  aman-
              dad,  i.e.  the user listed in the inetd or xinetd configuration

              AMANDA may use the Kerberos authentication system.  Further  in-
              formation  is  in  the  docs/KERBEROS    file that comes with an
              AMANDA distribution.

              For Samba access, AMANDA needs a file on the Samba server (which
              may  or  may  not also be the tape server) named /etc/amandapass
              with share names, (clear text) passwords and  (optional)  domain
              names, in that order, one per line, whitespace separated. By de-
              fault, the user used to connect to the PC is the  same  for  all
              PC’s and is compiled into AMANDA. It may be changed on a host by
              host basis by listing it first in the password field followed by
              a percent sign and then the password. For instance:

                //some-pc/home normalpw
                //another-pc/disk otheruser%otherpw
              With clear text passwords, this file should obviously be tightly protected. It only needs to be readable by the AMANDA-user on the Samba server.

              You can find further information in the docs/SAMBA   file that comes with an AMANDA distribution.


       All  host  and  disk arguments to programs are special expressions. The
       command applies to all disks that match your  arguments.  This  section
       describes the matcher.

       The  matcher matches by word, each word is a glob expression, words are
       separated by the separator ’.’ for host and ’/’ for disk. You  can  an-
       chor  the  expression at left with a ’^’. You can anchor the expression
       at right with a ’$’. The matcher is case insensitive for  host  but  is
       case  sensitive for disk. A match succeeds if all words in your expres-
       sion match contiguous words in the host or disk.

        .   word separator for a host
        /   word separator for a disk
        ^   anchor at left
        $   anchor at right
        ?   match exactly one character except the separator
        *   match zero or more characters except the separator
        **  match zero or more characters including the separator

       Some examples:

         EXPRESSION      WILL MATCH              WILL NOT MATCH
         hosta           hosta                   hostb
         host            host                    hosta
         host?           hosta                   host
         ho*na           hoina         
         ho**na          hoina
         ^hosta          hosta         
         sda*            /dev/sda1
         /opt/           opt (disk)              opt (host)
         .opt.           opt (host)              opt (disk)
         /               /                       any other disk
         /usr            /usr
         /usr$           /usr                    /usr/opt


       A datestamp expression is a range expression where we  only  match  the
       prefix. Leading ^ is removed. Trailing $ forces an exact match.

         20001212-14  match all dates beginning with 20001212, 20001213 or 20001214
         20001212-4   same as previous
         20001212-24  match all dates between 20001212 and 20001224
         2000121      match all dates that start with 2000121 (20001210-20001219)
         2            match all dates that start with 2 (20000101-29991231)
         2000-10      match all dates between 20000101-20101231
         200010$      match only 200010


       James da Silva, <> : Original text

       Stefan  G. Weichinger, <>, maintainer of the AMANDA-docu-
       mentation: XML-conversion,major update


       amadmin(8), amcheck(8), amcheckdb(8), amcleanup(8), amdd(8), amdump(8),
       amflush(8),   amgetconf(8),  amlabel(8),  ammt(8),  amoverview(8),  am-
       plot(8), amrecover(8), amreport(8), amrestore(8),  amrmtape(8),  amsta-
       tus(8), amtape(8), amtoc(8), amverify(8), amverifyrun(8)


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