GROPS(1)                                                              GROPS(1)


       grops - PostScript driver for groff


       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -ppapersize ]
             [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its


       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.  Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the  groff  command  with  a  -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this  is  the  default  for groff.)  If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also  cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.  When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P option.


       -bn    Workaround  broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally grops pro-
              duces output that conforms the Document Structuring  Conventions
              version  3.0.   Unfortunately some spoolers and previewers can’t
              handle such output.  The value of n controls what grops does  to
              its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
              grops not to employ any workarounds.  Add 1 if  no  %%BeginDocu-
              mentSetup  and  %%EndDocumentSetup comments should be generated;
              this is needed for early versions of TranScript  that  get  con-
              fused  by anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the first
              %%Page comment.  Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with
              %!   should  be  stripped out; this is needed for Sun’s pageview
              previewer.  Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments
              should  be  stripped  out  of included files; this is needed for
              spoolers that don’t understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDoc-
              ument  comments.  Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript out-
              put should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is
              needed  when  using Sun’s Newsprint with a printer that requires
              page reversal.  The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.  Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path  for  prologue,
              font,  and  device  description  files;  name is the name of the
              device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.   This  generates  PostScript  code  that
              guesses  the page length.  The guess will be correct only if the
              imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This  option
              allows  you  to  generate  documents that can be printed both on
              letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

              Set physical dimension of output  medium.   This  overrides  the
              papersize  and paperlength commands in the DESC file; it accepts
              the same arguments as the papersize command.

              Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as  the  prologue
              instead  of  the  default  prologue  file prologue.  This option
              overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths  of  an
              em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
              0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.


       There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted  at  font  positions  1
       to  4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P and T
       having members in each of these styles:

              AR     AvantGarde-Book

              AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

              AB     AvantGarde-Demi

              ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

              BMR    Bookman-Light

              BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

              BMB    Bookman-Demi

              BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

              CR     Courier

              CI     Courier-Oblique

              CB     Courier-Bold

              CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

              HR     Helvetica

              HI     Helvetica-Oblique

              HB     Helvetica-Bold

              HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

              HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

              HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

              HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

              HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

              NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

              NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

              NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

              NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

              PR     Palatino-Roman

              PI     Palatino-Italic

              PB     Palatino-Bold

              PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

              TR     Times-Roman

              TI     Times-Italic

              TB     Times-Bold

              TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

              ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called SS and S.   Zapf  Dingbats  is
       available  as  ZD  and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats (with symbols
       pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR;  most  charac-
       ters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       The  default  color  for  \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the
       ‘rgb’ color space, setrgbcolor is used, for ‘cmy’ and  ‘cmyk’  setcmyk-
       color, and for ‘gray’ setgray.

       grops  understands  various  X  commands  produced  using the \X escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \Xps: exec code
              This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
              PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
              command  before  executing  code.  The origin will be at the top
              left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will  increase  down
              the  page.   A  procedure  u will be defined that converts groff
              units to the coordinate system in effect.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \Xps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke

              will draw a horizontal  line  one  inch  long.   code  may  make
              changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
              to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
              specified  by  the def and mdef will be on top of the dictionary
              stack.  If your code adds definitions to  this  dictionary,  you
              should allocate space for them using \Xps mdef n.  Any defini-
              tions will persist only until the end of the page.  If  you  use
              the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
              can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     .de y
                     ps: exec
                     \nx u 0 rlineto

              is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \Xps: file name
              This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
              code is read from file name.

       \Xps: def code
              Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
              There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.   Long
              definitions  can be split over several \X commands; all the code
              arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
              definitions  are  placed  in a dictionary which is automatically
              pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
              If  you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
              macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \Xps: mdef n code
              Like def, except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
              grops  needs  to know how many definitions code contains so that
              it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript  dictionary  to
              contain them.

       \Xps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]
              Import  a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
              urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
              PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
              and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
              the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are the x and y coordinates of the
              upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
              that  give  the  desired  width and height in groff units of the
              graphic.  The graphic will be scaled so that it has  this  width
              and  height  and translated so that the lower left corner of the
              graphic is located at the position associated with  \X  command.
              If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
              the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
              that  the  contents  of  the  \X  command are not interpreted by
              troff; so vertical space for the graphic  is  not  automatically
              added,  and  the  width  and height arguments are not allowed to
              have attached scaling indicators.  If the PostScript  file  com-
              plies  with  the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and con-
              tains a %%BoundingBox comment, then  the  bounding  box  can  be
              automatically  extracted  from  within  groff  by using the psbb

              The -mps macros (which are automatically loaded  when  grops  is
              run  by  the groff command) include a PSPIC macro which allows a
              picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

                     .PSPIC [-L|-R|-I n] file [width [height]]

              file is the name of the file containing the illustration;  width
              and  height  give  the  desired width and height of the graphic.
              The width and  height  arguments  may  have  scaling  indicators
              attached;  the  default scaling indicator is i.  This macro will
              scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
              is  no  more  than  width wide and height high.  By default, the
              graphic will be horizontally centered.  The -L and -R cause  the
              graphic  to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.  The
              -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n.

       \Xps: invis
       \Xps: endinvis
              No output will be generated for text and drawing  commands  that
              are  bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands are
              intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
              being  processed  with grops; if the previewer is unable to dis-
              play certain characters or other constructs, then other  substi-
              tute  characters  or  constructs  can  be used for previewing by
              bracketing them with these \X commands.

              For example, gxditview is not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
              character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
              problem can be overcome by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \Xps: invis\
                     \Z\v-.25m\h.05m\Dl .9m 0\h.05m\
                     \Xps: endinvis\(em

              In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em char-
              acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the \(em
              character and ignore the line.

       The input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).   This  is
       described in groff_out(5).  In addition the device and font description
       files for the device used must meet certain requirements.   The  device
       and  font  description  files  supplied  for  ps  device meet all these
       requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be used to create font  files  from  AFM
       files.   The  resolution  must  be  an integer multiple of 72 times the
       sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of
       1000.  The device description file should contain a command

              paperlength n

       which says that output should be generated which is suitable for print-
       ing on a page whose length is  n  machine  units.   Common  values  are
       792000  for  letter  paper and 841890 for paper in A4 format.  Alterna-
       tively, it can contain

              papersize string

       to specify a paper size; see groff_font(5) for more information.   Each
       font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript  font  should  be  reencoded  using  the
       encoding  described in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence
       of lines of the form:

              pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
       position  in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer.  Lines start-
       ing with # and blank lines are ignored.  The code  for  each  character
       given in the font file must correspond to the code for the character in
       encoding file, or to the code in the default encoding for the  font  if
       the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This code can be used with
       the \N escape sequence in troff to select the character,  even  if  the
       character does not have a groff name.  Every character in the font file
       must exist in the PostScript font, and the widths  given  in  the  font
       file  must  match  the  widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will
       assume that a character with a groff name of space is blank  (makes  no
       marks  on  the  page);  it can make use of such a character to generate
       more efficient and compact PostScript output.

       grops can automatically include the  downloadable  fonts  necessary  to
       print   the  document.   Any  downloadable  fonts  which  should,  when
       required,  be  included  by  grops  must  be   listed   in   the   file
       /usr/share/groff/;  this  should consist of
       lines of the form

              font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are ignored; fields may be separated by tabs or spaces;  filename  will
       be  searched  for  using the same mechanism that is used for groff font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this  mechanism;  currently, only the first found file in the font path
       is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or  imported  document  con-
       forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output  is  conforming.   It will also supply any needed font resources
       that are listed in the  download  file  as  well  as  any  needed  file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Gara-
       mond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond’s font dictionary,
       and  change  the  PaintType),  then  it is necessary for Garamond to be
       appear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops  will
       handle  this automatically provided that the downloadable font file for
       Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means  of  the
       Document  Structuring  Conventions,  for  example by beginning with the
       following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in  the  download file.  A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeed-
       edResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginRe-
       source and %%EndResource comments (or possibly the old  %%DocumentNeed-
       edFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont and %%End-
       Font comments) should be used.

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted  first  to  Type  42
       format,  an  especial  PostScript  wrapper equivalent to the PFA format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).  There are several different methods to gener-
       ate  a  type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a PostScript
       interpreter such as Ghostscript — see gs(1).  Yet, the  easiest  method
       involves  the  use  of  the  application  ttftot42.   This program uses
       freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font wrappers and  well-
       formed  AFM  files  that can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create
       appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be  added
       to  the  download  file.   ttftot42  source code can be downloaded from   〈


              If  this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the
              font path) instead of the default prologue file  prologue.   The
              option -P overrides this environment variable.


              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              List of downloadable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

              Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

              Macros  to  disable  use  of  characters  not  present  in older
              PostScript printers (e.g. ‘eth’ or ‘thorn’).

              Temporary file.


       afmtodit(1), groff(1), troff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5),  groff_font(5),

Groff Version          16 August 2002                        GROPS(1)

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