INND(8)                   InterNetNews Documentation                   INND(8)


       innd - InterNetNews daemon


       innd [-aCdfNrsu] [-c days] [-H count] [-i count] [-I address] [-l size]
       [-m mode] [-n flag] [-o count] [-p fd] [-P port] [-t timeout] [-T
       count] [-X seconds]


       innd, the InterNetNews daemon, handles all incoming NNTP feeds, coordi-
       nates the storage, retransmission, and overview generation for all
       accepted articles, and manages the active(5) and history(5) databases.
       It handles incoming connections on the NNTP port, and also creates and
       listens to a local Unix-domain stream socket in order to receive arti-
       cles from local processes such as nnrpd(8) and rnews(1).

       As the master daemon, innd should generally be started at boot and be
       always running.  It listens to a Unix-domain datagram socket for com-
       mands to control its activites, commands that can be sent using
       ctlinnd(8).  The current status of innd can be obtained by running
       "ctlinnd mode", or for more detailed output, innstat(8).

       innd can be in one of three operating modes:  running, paused, or
       throttled.  Running is the normal mode; when the server is throttled,
       it closes connections and rejects new ones.  Paused is like a temporary
       throttle, suspending innd’s activities but not causing the server to
       shut down existing connections.  The mode is normally changed via
       ctlinnd(8), either by various automated processes (such as nightly
       article expiration) or manually by the news administrator, but innd
       will also throttle itself if it encounters ENOSPC errors in writing
       data or an excessive number of I/O errors (among other problems).

       innd normally takes care of spawning nnrpd(8) to handle connections
       from news reading clients, but it can be run on a separate port from
       nnrpd(8) so that feed connections and news reading connections are han-
       dled separately (this can often be faster).  Normally, innd listens on
       port 119, the assigned port for NNTP; if it is desireable to run innd
       and nnrpd(8) on separate ports, it’s recommended that nnrpd(8) be given
       port 119 (since many news reading clients connect only to that port)
       and that port 433 be used for innd.

       The primary configuration files that control innd’s activities are
       incoming.conf, which specifies what remote sites innd will accept con-
       nections from, newsfeeds, which specifies what is to be done with
       incoming articles besides storing them, and inn.conf, which sets a wide
       variety of configuration parameters.  Some parameters in inn.conf(5)
       can also be set with command-line flags; for these, the command-line
       flags take precedence if used.

       innd should normally not run directly.  It must run as the news user or
       all sorts of file ownership problems may result, and normally the port
       it listens on (119 or 433) is privileged and must be opened by root.
       Instead, innd should normally be started via inndstart(8), a small
       setuid-root program that opens the appropriate port, cleans up the
       environment, changes to the news user, and then runs innd, passing
       along any command-line arguments.

       To use IPv6, innd must be started by inndstart.


       For the options below that override inn.conf settings, see inn.conf(5)
       for the default values if neither the inn.conf setting nor the command-
       line option is given.

       -a  By default, if a host connects to innd but is not listed in incom-
           ing.conf, the connection is handed off to nnrpd (or rejected if
           noreader is set in inn.conf).  If -a is given, incoming.conf is
           ignored and any host can connect and transfer articles.  This flag
           should never be used with an accessible server connected to Usenet;
           it would open the server up for all sorts of abuse.

       -c days
           innd normally rejects any article that is older (in days) than the
           value of artcutoff in inn.conf.  This option, if given, overrides
           the value of that setting.  If days is 0, this check is suppressed
           and innd will accept articles regardless of how old they are.

       -C  This flag tells innd to accept and propagate but not actually pro-
           cess cancel or supersede messages.  This is intended for sites con-
           cerned about abuse of cancels, or that wish to use another cancel
           mechanism with stronger authentication.

       -d, -f
           innd normally puts itself into the background, points its standard
           output and error to log files, and disassociates itself from the
           terminal.  Using -d prevents all of this, resulting in log messages
           being written to standard output; this is generally useful only for
           debugging.  Using -f prevents the backgrounding and disassociation
           but still redirects output; it may be useful if you want to monitor
           innd with a program that would be confused by forks.

       -H count, -T count, -X seconds
           These flags control the number of connections per minute that are
           allowed.  This code is meant to protect your server from newsreader
           clients that make too many connections per minute (and therefore
           these flags are probably only useful when innd is spawning nnrpd).
           You probably should not use these options unless you’re having
           problems.  The table used for this check is fixed at 128 entries
           and is used as a ring; the size was chosen to make calculating the
           index easy and to be fairly sure that it won’t run out of space.
           In practice, it is unlikely that even half the table will be used
           at any given moment.

           The -H flag limits the number of times a host is allowed to connect
           to the server per the time interval given by -X.  The default is 2.

           The -T flag limits the total number of incoming connections per the
           time interval given by -X.  The maximum value is 128, and the
           default is 60.

       -i count
           innd normally allows a maximum number of concurrent NNTP connec-
           tions given by the value of maxconnections in inn.conf.  This
           option, if given, overrides the value of that setting.  If count is
           0, this check is suppressed.

       -I address
           Normally if innd itself binds to a port, it lets the operating sys-
           tem pick the source IP address (unless bindaddress is set in
           inn.conf).  If this option is given, it specifies the IP address
           that INN should bind as.  This is only relevant for servers with
           multiple local IP addresses.  The IP address must be in dotted quad
           ("nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn") format.

           This option is rarely useful since innd should not be binding to a
           port itself.  Instead, use inndstart(8) and its analgous -I option.

       -l size
           innd normally rejects any article larger than the value of maxart-
           size in inn.conf.  This option, if given, overrides the value of
           that setting and specifies a maximum article size of size.  If size
           is 0, this check is suppressed.

       -m mode
           Normally innd starts in the "running" mode.  If this option is
           given, it specifies what mode innd should start in.  mode should
           begin with one of "g", "p", or "t", and the starting mode will be
           set to "running", "paused", or "throttled", respectively, based on
           that initial letter.  ("g" is short for "go".)

       -N  If this option is given, any filters (Perl, Tcl, or Python) are
           disabled before innd starts (normally, filters default to being
           enabled).  The filters can be enabled after innd has started with

       -n flag
           Whether innd allows (and hands off to nnrpd) reader connections
           while paused or throttled is normally determined by the value of
           readerswhenstopped in inn.conf).  This option, if given, overrides
           that value.  If flag is "n", innd will not allow readers if it is
           paused or throttled.  If flag is "y", readers will be allowed
           regardless of innd’s operating mode.

       -o count
           This flag limits the number of file descriptors that are available
           for outgoing file feeds.  The default is the number of available
           file descriptors minus some reserved for internal use (which could
           potentially starve innd of descriptors to use for accepting new
           connections).  If innd has more file feeds than count, some of them
           will be buffered and only written out periodically.

           Normally you never need to use this option, since the number of
           outgoing feeds is fixed, being the number of file feeds configured
           in newsfeeds, and is generally small (particularly given that inn-
           feed(8) is now used for most outgoing feeds at large sites).

       -p fd
           If this flag is given, innd expects the file descriptor given by fd
           to already be open and bound to the appropriate local port and to
           be suitable for listening to for incoming connections.  This is how
           inndstart tells innd which open file descriptor is the network con-
           nection.  If this flag is not given, innd will attempt to open its
           network socket itself.  inndstart always passes this flag to innd.

       -P port
           The port innd should listen on is normally given by the value of
           port in inn.conf.  This option, if given, overrides that value and
           specifies the port that innd should bind to.  This option is rarely
           useful since innd normally does not bind itself; instead the anal-
           gous -P option to inndstart(8) should be used.  Since innd should
           never be run as root, port has to be a non-privileged port (one
           larger than 1024).

       -r  Instructs innd to renumber the active file after starting, just as
           if a "ctlinnd renumber" command were sent.

       -s  Just check the syntax of the newsfeeds file and exit.  innd will
           exit with a non-zero status if any errors are found; the actual
           errors will be reported via syslog(3).

       -t seconds
           Normally, innd will flush any changes to history and the active
           file after 300 seconds of inactivity.  This option changes that
           timeout to seconds.

       -u  The news log (the trace information for every article accepted by
           innd) is normally buffered.  This option changes the log to be


       Arriving articles that have a Control header are called "control mes-
       sages".  Except for cancel messages, these messages are handled by con-
       trolchan(8) via a feed set up in newsfeeds.

       (Cancel messages update the history database, so they must be handled
       internally; the cost of syncing, locking, then unlocking would be too
       high given the number of cancel messages that are received.)

       The distribution of control messages is different than that of standard
       articles.  Control messages are normally filed into the pseudo-news-
       group named "control" regardless of which newsgroup they were actually
       posted to.  If, however, a "control."command newsgroup exists that
       matches the control command, the control message will be filed into
       that group instead.  For example, a newgroup control message will be
       filed in "control.newgroup" if that group exists; otherwise, it will be
       filed in "control".

       If you want to specifically feed all control messages to a given site
       regardless of whether the control messages would affect the newsgroups
       you’re feeding that site, you can put the appropriate control newsgroup
       in the subscription list.  For example, to feed all cancel messages to
       a given remote site (normally a bad idea), add "control.cancel" to its
       subscription list.  Normally it’s best to exclude the control news-
       groups from feeds to keep from sending your peers more control messages
       than they care about.

       newgroup and rmgroup control messages receive additional special treat-
       ment.  If one of these control messages is approved and posted to the
       newsgroup being created or removed, the message will be sent to all
       sites whose subscription patterns would cause them to receive articles
       posted to that group.  For example, if a newgroup control message for a
       nonexistent newsgroup "news.admin.meow" is received, it will be sent to
       any site whose subscription pattern would cause it to receive
       "news.admin.meow" if that newsgroup existed (such as a pattern of
       "news.admin.*").  For this reason, it is correct to post newgroup mes-
       sages to the newsgroup that the control message would create.  It is
       not generally correct to crosspost newgroup messages to some
       "well-propagated" newsgroup; not only will this not actually improve
       their propagation to sites that want such control messages, but it will
       also cause sites that do not want those control messages to receive

       If a control message is posted to a group whose name ends with the four
       characters ".ctl", this suffix is stripped off and the control message
       is propagated as if it were posted to the base group.  For example, a
       cancel message posted to "news.admin.ctl" will be sent to all sites
       that subscribe to "control.cancel" (or "control" if that newsgroup
       doesn’t exist) or "news.admin".  This behavior is present for histori-
       cal compatibility reasons and should be considered obsolete; support
       for the ".ctl" suffix may be removed in a future version of INN.

       Finally, articles posted to newsgroups beginning with "to." are treated
       specially.  Provided that either that newsgroup exists in the active
       file or mergetogroups is set in inn.conf, the remainder of the news-
       group is taken to be a site name, as configured in newsfeeds, and the
       article is sent to that site.  If mergetogroups is set, the article
       will be filed in the group named "to" (which must exist in the active
       file).  For example, with mergetogroups set, an article posted to
       "to.uunet" will be filed in "to" and sent to the site "uunet".


       innd implements the NNTP commands defined in RFC 977, with the follow-
       ing differences:

       1.  The LIST command may be followed by an optional ACTIVE,
           ACTIVE.TIMES, or NEWSGROUPS.  There is only basic support for LIST
           in innd since feeding peers normally don’t need it; see nnrpd(8)
           for full support.

       2.  The AUTHINFO USER and AUTHINFO PASS commands are implemented,
           although the authentication is currently limited to matching a
           password for a given peer specified in incoming.conf.  These are
           based on the reference Unix implementation.

       3.  A new command, MODE READER, is implemented.  This command will
           cause the server to pass the connection to nnrpd.

       4.  The streaming extension (MODE STREAM, CHECK, and TAKETHIS) is fully

       5.  A batch transfer command, XBATCH byte-count, is provided.  This
           command will read byte-count bytes and store them for later pro-
           cessing by rnews(1) (which must be run separately, probably from
           cron).  See innxbatch(8) and backends/sendxbatches for more details
           on this extension.

       6.  innd implements a limited subset of the protocol useful for trans-
           ferring news.  The only other commands implemented are HEAD, HELP,
           IHAVE, STAT, and QUIT.  The remaining commands are mostly only use-
           ful for readers and are implemented by nnrpd(8).


       innd modifies as few article headers as possible, although it could be
       better in this area.

       Empty headers and headers that consist of nothing but whitespace are

       The local site’s name (as set with the pathhost parameter in inn.conf)
       and an exclamation point are prepended to the Path: header, provided
       the first site name in the Path: header is different from the local
       one.  In addition, pathalias may be similarly prepended to the Path:
       header; see inn.conf(5) for the details.

       The Xref: header is removed and a new one created.

       A Lines: header will be added if the article was missing one.

       innd does not rewrite incorrect headers.  For example, it will not
       replace an incorrect Lines header, though it may reject such an article
       depending on the value of linecountfuzz in inn.conf.


       In order to efficiently apply a large number of local cancels (such as
       from processing NoCeMs or from some other external source), INN sup-
       ports a special feed mode available only to connections to the local
       Unix domain socket (not to connections to any network sockets).

       To enter this mode, connect to the Unix domain socket (pathrun/nntpin)
       and send the command MODE CANCEL.  The response will have code 284.
       Every subsequent line sent on that connection should consist of a sin-
       gle message ID.  An attempt will be made to cancel that message ID, and
       the server will reply 289 for success or 484 for failure.  (Failure can
       occur, for example, if the server is paused or throttled, or the Mes-
       sage-ID is corrupt.  Failure does not occur if the article to be can-
       celled does not exist.)


       innd reports all incoming articles in its log file (pathlog/news).
       This is a text file with a variable number of space-separated fields in
       one of the following formats:

           mon dd hh:mm:ss.mmm + feed <message-id> site ...
           mon dd hh:mm:ss.mmm j feed <message-id> site ...
           mon dd hh:mm:ss.mmm c feed <message-id> Cancelling <message-id>
           mon dd hh:mm:ss.mmm - feed <message-id> reason
           mon dd hh:mm:ss.mmm ? feed <message-id> reason

       There may also be hostname and/or size fields after the message ID
       depending on the settings of nntplinklog and logartsize in inn.conf.

       The first three fields are the date and time to millisecond resolution.
       The fifth field is the site that sent the article (based on the Path
       header) and the sixth field is the article’s message ID; they will be a
       question mark if the information is not available.

       The fourth field indicates whether the article was accepted or not.  If
       it is a plus sign, then the article was accepted.  If it is the letter
       "j" then the article was accepted, but all of the newsgroups to which
       the article was posted were set to mode "j" in the active file (or not
       listed in the active file and wanttrash was set in inn.conf) so the
       article was filed into the "junk" newsgroup.  In both of these cases,
       the article has been accepted and the "site ..." field contains the
       space-separated list of sites to which the article is being sent.

       If the fourth field is the letter "c", then a cancel message was
       accepted before the original article arrived, and a history entry for
       the cancelled message was created so that innd will reject that message
       if it arrives later.

       If the fourth field is a minus sign, then the article was rejected.
       The reasons for rejection generated by innd include:

           "%s" header too long
           "%s" wants to cancel <%s> by "%s"
           Article exceeds local limit of %s bytes
           Article posted in the future -- "%s"
           Bad "%s" header
           Can’t write history
           Duplicate "%s" header
           EOF in headers
           Linecount %s != %s +- %s
           Missing %s header
           No body
           No colon-space in "%s" header
           No space
           Space before colon in "%s" header
           Too old -- "%s"
           Unapproved for "%s"
           Unwanted newsgroup "%s"
           Unwanted distribution "%s"
           Whitespace in "Newsgroups" header -- "%s"

       where %s, above, is replaced by more specific information.  (The Perl,
       Python, andr Tcl filters, if used, may reject articles with other rea-

       If the fourth field is the letter "?", the article contains strange
       strings, such as CR without LF or LF without CR.  (These characters
       should never occur in isolation, only together as CRLF to indicate the
       end of a line.)  This log message is just informational, to give an
       idea of how widespread such articles are; innd does not reject such

       Note that when wanttrash is set to true in inn.conf and an article is
       received that isn’t posted to any valid newsgroups, it will be accepted
       and logged with two lines, a "j" line and a minus sign line.

       innd also makes extensive reports through syslog(3).  The first word of
       the log message will be the name of the site if the entry is site-spe-
       cific (such as a "connected" message).  The first word will be "SERVER"
       if the message relates to the server itself, such as when a read error

       If the second word is the four letters "cant", then an error is being
       reported.  (The absence of an apostrophe is intentional; it makes it
       easier to grep from the command line and easier to find error messages
       in FAQs using a search engine.)  In this case, the next two words gen-
       erally name the system call or library routine that failed and the
       object upon which the action was being performed.  The rest of the line
       may contain other information.

       In other cases, the second word attempts to summarize what change has
       been made, while the rest of the line gives more specific information.
       The word "internal" generally indicates an internal logic error.


       innd will catch SIGTERM and SIGHUP and shut down.  If -d is used, SIG-
       INT will also be caught and will result in an orderly shutdown.

       innd will catch the SIGUSR1 signal and recreate the control channel
       used by ctlinnd(8).


       innd normally attempts to strip IP options from incoming connections,
       since it uses IP-based authentication and source routing can confuse
       that.  However, this doesn’t work on all systems, and it doesn’t work
       at all in the presence of IPv6 support (and is disabled in that case).
       Hence, if using innd with IPv6 support, make sure that your kernel or
       router disables source routing.


       Written by Rich $alz <> for InterNetNews.

       $Id: innd.8,v 1.37 2003/03/19 00:19:59 vinocur Exp $


       active(5), ctlinnd(8), dbz(3), history(5), incoming.conf(5),
       inn.conf(5), newsfeeds(5), nnrpd(8), rnews(1), syslog(3).

INN 2.4.0                         2003-03-18                           INND(8)

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