pkcs12



PKCS12(1)                           OpenSSL                          PKCS12(1)




NAME

       pkcs12 - PKCS#12 file utility


SYNOPSIS

       openssl pkcs12 [-export] [-chain] [-inkey filename] [-certfile file-
       name] [-name name] [-caname name] [-in filename] [-out filename]
       [-noout] [-nomacver] [-nocerts] [-clcerts] [-cacerts] [-nokeys] [-info]
       [-des] [-des3] [-idea] [-nodes] [-noiter] [-maciter] [-twopass]
       [-descert] [-certpbe] [-keypbe] [-keyex] [-keysig] [-password arg]
       [-passin arg] [-passout arg] [-rand file(s)]


DESCRIPTION

       The pkcs12 command allows PKCS#12 files (sometimes referred to as PFX
       files) to be created and parsed. PKCS#12 files are used by several pro-
       grams including Netscape, MSIE and MS Outlook.


COMMAND OPTIONS

       There are a lot of options the meaning of some depends of whether a
       PKCS#12 file is being created or parsed. By default a PKCS#12 file is
       parsed a PKCS#12 file can be created by using the -export option (see
       below).


PARSING OPTIONS

       -in filename
           This specifies filename of the PKCS#12 file to be parsed. Standard
           input is used by default.

       -out filename
           The filename to write certificates and private keys to, standard
           output by default.  They are all written in PEM format.

       -pass arg, -passin arg
           the PKCS#12 file (i.e. input file) password source. For more infor-
           mation about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS sec-
           tion in openssl(1).

       -passout arg
           pass phrase source to encrypt any outputed private keys with. For
           more information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGU-
           MENTS section in openssl(1).

       -noout
           this option inhibits output of the keys and certificates to the
           output file version of the PKCS#12 file.

       -clcerts
           only output client certificates (not CA certificates).

       -cacerts
           only output CA certificates (not client certificates).

       -nocerts
           no certificates at all will be output.

       -nokeys
           no private keys will be output.

       -info
           output additional information about the PKCS#12 file structure,
           algorithms used and iteration counts.

       -des
           use DES to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -des3
           use triple DES to encrypt private keys before outputting, this is
           the default.

       -idea
           use IDEA to encrypt private keys before outputting.

       -nodes
           don’t encrypt the private keys at all.

       -nomacver
           don’t attempt to verify the integrity MAC before reading the file.

       -twopass
           prompt for separate integrity and encryption passwords: most soft-
           ware always assumes these are the same so this option will render
           such PKCS#12 files unreadable.


FILE CREATION OPTIONS

       -export
           This option specifies that a PKCS#12 file will be created rather
           than parsed.

       -out filename
           This specifies filename to write the PKCS#12 file to. Standard out-
           put is used by default.

       -in filename
           The filename to read certificates and private keys from, standard
           input by default.  They must all be in PEM format. The order
           doesn’t matter but one private key and its corresponding certifi-
           cate should be present. If additional certificates are present they
           will also be included in the PKCS#12 file.

       -inkey filename
           file to read private key from. If not present then a private key
           must be present in the input file.

       -name friendlyname
           This specifies the "friendly name" for the certificate and private
           key. This name is typically displayed in list boxes by software
           importing the file.

       -certfile filename
           A filename to read additional certificates from.

       -caname friendlyname
           This specifies the "friendly name" for other certificates. This
           option may be used multiple times to specify names for all certifi-
           cates in the order they appear. Netscape ignores friendly names on
           other certificates whereas MSIE displays them.

       -pass arg, -passout arg
           the PKCS#12 file (i.e. output file) password source. For more
           information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
           section in openssl(1).

       -passin password
           pass phrase source to decrypt any input private keys with. For more
           information about the format of arg see the PASS PHRASE ARGUMENTS
           section in openssl(1).

       -chain
           if this option is present then an attempt is made to include the
           entire certificate chain of the user certificate. The standard CA
           store is used for this search. If the search fails it is considered
           a fatal error.

       -descert
           encrypt the certificate using triple DES, this may render the
           PKCS#12 file unreadable by some "export grade" software. By default
           the private key is encrypted using triple DES and the certificate
           using 40 bit RC2.

       -keypbe alg, -certpbe alg
           these options allow the algorithm used to encrypt the private key
           and certificates to be selected. Although any PKCS#5 v1.5 or
           PKCS#12 algorithms can be selected it is advisable only to use
           PKCS#12 algorithms. See the list in the NOTES section for more
           information.

       -keyex-keysig
           specifies that the private key is to be used for key exchange or
           just signing.  This option is only interpreted by MSIE and similar
           MS software. Normally "export grade" software will only allow 512
           bit RSA keys to be used for encryption purposes but arbitrary
           length keys for signing. The -keysig option marks the key for sign-
           ing only. Signing only keys can be used for S/MIME signing, authen-
           ticode (ActiveX control signing)  and SSL client authentication,
           however due to a bug only MSIE 5.0 and later support the use of
           signing only keys for SSL client authentication.

       -nomaciter, -noiter
           these options affect the iteration counts on the MAC and key algo-
           rithms.  Unless you wish to produce files compatible with MSIE 4.0
           you should leave these options alone.

           To discourage attacks by using large dictionaries of common pass-
           words the algorithm that derives keys from passwords can have an
           iteration count applied to it: this causes a certain part of the
           algorithm to be repeated and slows it down. The MAC is used to
           check the file integrity but since it will normally have the same
           password as the keys and certificates it could also be attacked.
           By default both MAC and encryption iteration counts are set to
           2048, using these options the MAC and encryption iteration counts
           can be set to 1, since this reduces the file security you should
           not use these options unless you really have to. Most software sup-
           ports both MAC and key iteration counts.  MSIE 4.0 doesn’t support
           MAC iteration counts so it needs the -nomaciter option.

       -maciter
           This option is included for compatibility with previous versions,
           it used to be needed to use MAC iterations counts but they are now
           used by default.

       -rand file(s)
           a file or files containing random data used to seed the random num-
           ber generator, or an EGD socket (see RAND_egd(3)).  Multiple files
           can be specified separated by a OS-dependent character.  The sepa-
           rator is ; for MS-Windows, , for OpenVMS, and : for all others.


NOTES

       Although there are a large number of options most of them are very
       rarely used. For PKCS#12 file parsing only -in and -out need to be used
       for PKCS#12 file creation -export and -name are also used.

       If none of the -clcerts, -cacerts or -nocerts options are present then
       all certificates will be output in the order they appear in the input
       PKCS#12 files. There is no guarantee that the first certificate present
       is the one corresponding to the private key. Certain software which
       requires a private key and certificate and assumes the first certifi-
       cate in the file is the one corresponding to the private key: this may
       not always be the case. Using the -clcerts option will solve this prob-
       lem by only outputting the certificate corresponding to the private
       key. If the CA certificates are required then they can be output to a
       separate file using the -nokeys -cacerts options to just output CA
       certificates.

       The -keypbe and -certpbe algorithms allow the precise encryption algo-
       rithms for private keys and certificates to be specified. Normally the
       defaults are fine but occasionally software can’t handle triple DES
       encrypted private keys, then the option -keypbe PBE-SHA1-RC2-40 can be
       used to reduce the private key encryption to 40 bit RC2. A complete
       description of all algorithms is contained in the pkcs8 manual page.


EXAMPLES

       Parse a PKCS#12 file and output it to a file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem

       Output only client certificates to a file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -clcerts -out file.pem

       Don’t encrypt the private key:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -out file.pem -nodes

       Print some info about a PKCS#12 file:

        openssl pkcs12 -in file.p12 -info -noout

       Create a PKCS#12 file:

        openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate"

       Include some extra certificates:

        openssl pkcs12 -export -in file.pem -out file.p12 -name "My Certificate" \
         -certfile othercerts.pem


BUGS

       Some would argue that the PKCS#12 standard is one big bug :-)

       Versions of OpenSSL before 0.9.6a had a bug in the PKCS#12 key genera-
       tion routines. Under rare circumstances this could produce a PKCS#12
       file encrypted with an invalid key. As a result some PKCS#12 files
       which triggered this bug from other implementations (MSIE or Netscape)
       could not be decrypted by OpenSSL and similarly OpenSSL could produce
       PKCS#12 files which could not be decrypted by other implementations.
       The chances of producing such a file are relatively small: less than 1
       in 256.

       A side effect of fixing this bug is that any old invalidly encrypted
       PKCS#12 files cannot no longer be parsed by the fixed version. Under
       such circumstances the pkcs12 utility will report that the MAC is OK
       but fail with a decryption error when extracting private keys.

       This problem can be resolved by extracting the private keys and cer-
       tificates from the PKCS#12 file using an older version of OpenSSL and
       recreating the PKCS#12 file from the keys and certificates using a
       newer version of OpenSSL. For example:

        old-openssl -in bad.p12 -out keycerts.pem
        openssl -in keycerts.pem -export -name "My PKCS#12 file" -out fixed.p12


SEE ALSO

       pkcs8(1)



0.9.7f                            2001-09-07                         PKCS12(1)

Man(1) output converted with man2html