Pnmtotiff User Manual(0)                              Pnmtotiff User Manual(0)


       pnmtotiff - convert a PNM image to a TIFF file



       [-none | -packbits | -lzw | -g3 | -g4 | -flate | -adobeflate]












       [-resolutionunit={inch | centimeter | none | in | cm | no}]




       You  can  use  the minimum unique abbreviation of the options.  You can
       use two hyphens instead of one.  You can separate an option  name  from
       its value with white space instead of an equals sign.


       This program is part of Netpbm(1).

       pnmtotiff  reads  a PNM image as input and produces a TIFF file as out-

       Actually, it handles multi-image  PNM  streams,  producing  multi-image
       TIFF  streams  (i.e.  a  TIFF stream with multiple ’directories’).  But
       before Netpbm 10.27 (March 2005), it ignored  all  but  the  first  PNM
       image in the input stream.

   The Output File
       The  output  goes to Standard Output.  pnmtotiff approaches this output
       file differently from Unix and Netpbm convention.  This is entirely due
       to pnmtotiff’s use of the TIFF library to do all TIFF output.

       ·      The  output  file must be seekable.  pnmtotiff does not write it
              sequentially.  Therefore, you can’t use a pipe; you  can’t  pipe
              the  output of pnmtotiff to some other program.  But any regular
              file should work.

       ·      If the output file descriptor is readable, you must either spec-
              ify  -append so as to add to the existing file, or make sure the
              file is empty.  Otherwise, pnmtotiff will fail with an unhelpful
              message  telling you that a TIFF library function failed to open
              the TIFF output stream.

       ·      If you are converting multiple images (your  input  stream  con-
              tains  multiple  images),  the output file must be both readable
              and writable.

       If you’re using a Unix command shell to run pnmtotiff, you use  facili-
       ties  of  your  shell to set up Standard Output.  In Bash, for example,
       you would set up a write-only Standard Output to  the  file  /tmp/myim-
       age.tiff like this:

           $ pnmtotiff myimage.pnm >/tmp/myimage.tiff

       In  Bash,  you  would  set  up a read/write Standard Output to the file
       /tmp/myimage.tiff like this:

           $ pnmtotiff myimage.pnm 1<>/tmp/myimage.tiff


       By default, pnmtotiff creates a TIFF file with no compression.  This is
       your best bet most of the time.  If you want to try another compression
       scheme or tweak some of the other even  more  obscure  output  options,
       there are a number of options which which to play.

       Before Netpbm 8.4 (April 2000), the default was to use LZW compression.
       But then new releases of the TIFF library started omitting the LZW com-
       pression  capability  due  to  concern  about patents on LZW.  So since
       then, the default has been no compression.  The LZW  patents  have  now
       expired  and  new  TIFF  libraries  do  LZW, but the pnmtotiff behavior
       remains the same for compatibility with older TIFF libraries and appli-
       cations of pnmtotiff.

       The  -none,  -packbits, -lzw, -g3, -g4, -flate, and -adobeflate options
       are used to override the default and set the compression scheme used in
       creating  the  output  file.  The CCITT Group 3 and Group 4 compression
       algorithms can be used only with  bilevel  data.   The  -2d  and  -fill
       options  are  meaningful  only  with  Group 3 compression: -2d requests
       2-dimensional encoding, while -fill requests that each encoded scanline
       be zero-filled to a byte boundary.  The -predictor option is meaningful
       only with LZW compression: a predictor value of 2 causes each  scanline
       of  the  output  image  to undergo horizontal differencing before it is
       encoded; a value of 1 forces each scanline to be encoded  without  dif-
       ferencing.   By  default, pnmtotiff creates a TIFF file with msb-to-lsb
       fill order.  The -msb2lsb and -lsb2msb options are used to override the
       default and set the fill order used in creating the file.

       With  some  older  TIFF  libraries,  -lzw doesn’t work because the TIFF
       library doesn’t do LZW compression.  This is because of concerns  about
       Unisys’s  patent  on  LZW which was then in force.  Actually, with very
       old TIFF libraries, -lzw works because  no  distributors  of  the  TIFF
       library were sensitive yet to the patent issue.

       -flate  chooses  ’flate’ compression, which is the patent-free compres-
       sion common in the Unix world implemented by the ’Z’  library.   It  is
       what the PNG format uses.

   Fill Order
       The -msb2lsb and lsb2msb options controll the fill order.

       The  fill  order is the order in which pixels are packed into a byte in
       the Tiff raster, in the case that there are multiple pixels  per  byte.
       msb-to-lsb means that the leftmost columns go into the most significant
       bits of the byte in the Tiff image.   However,  there  is  considerable
       confusion  about  the  meaning  of  fill  order.  Some believe it means
       whether 16 bit sample values in the Tiff  image  are  little-endian  or
       big-endian.  This is totally erroneous (The endianness of integers in a
       Tiff image is  designated  by  the  image’s  magic  number).   However,
       ImageMagick  and  older  Netpbm  both have been known to implement that
       interpretation.  2001.09.06.

       If the image does not have  sub-byte  pixels,  these  options  have  no
       effect  other  than  to  set the value of the FILLORDER tag in the Tiff
       image (which may be useful for those programs that misinterpret the tag
       with reference to 16 bit samples).

   Color Space
       -color  tells  pnmtotiff  to  produce a color, as opposed to grayscale,
       TIFF image if the input is PPM, even if  it  contains  only  shades  of
       gray.   Without  this option, pnmtotiff produces a grayscale TIFF image
       if the input is PPM and contains only shades of gray, and at  most  256
       shades.   Otherwise,  it produces a color TIFF output.  For PBM and PGM
       input, pnmtotiff always produces grayscale TIFF output and this  option
       has no effect.

       The  -color option can prevent pnmtotiff from making two passes through
       the input file, thus improving speed and memory  usage.   See  Multiple
       Passes .

       -truecolor  tells pnmtotiff to produce the 24-bit RGB form of TIFF out-
       put if it is producing a color TIFF image.  Without this option, pnmto-
       tiff produces a colormapped (paletted) TIFF image unless there are more
       than 256 colors (and in the latter case, issues a warning).

       The -truecolor option can prevent  pnmtotiff  from  making  two  passes
       through  the  input  file,  thus improving speed and memory usage.  See
       Multiple Passes .

       The -color and -truecolor options did  not  exist  before  Netpbm  9.21
       (December 2001).

       If  pnmtotiff  produces  a  grayscale  TIFF  image,  this option has no

       The -minisblack and -miniswhite options force the output image to  have
       a  ’minimum  is black’ or ’minimum is white’ photometric, respectively.
       If you don’t specify either, pnmtotiff uses  minimum  is  black  except
       when using Group 3 or Group 4 compression, in which case pnmtotiff fol-
       lows CCITT fax standards and uses  ’minimum  is  white.’  This  usually
       results  in  better  compression and is generally preferred for bilevel

       Before February 2001, pnmtotiff always produced ’minimum is black,’ due
       to  a  bug.  In either case, pnmtotiff sets the photometric interpreta-
       tion tag in the TIFF output according to which photometric is  actually

       The  -indexbits  option is meaningful only for a colormapped (paletted)
       image.  In this kind of image, the raster  contains  values  which  are
       indexes  into  a table of colors, with the indexes normally taking less
       space that the color description in the table.  pnmtotiff can  generate
       indexes of 1, 2, 4, or 8 bits.  By default, it will use 8, because many
       programs that interpret TIFF images can’t handle any other width.

       But if you have a small number of colors, you can make your image  con-
       siderably  smaller  by  allowing fewer than 8 bits per index, using the
       -indexbits option.  The value is a  comma-separated  list  of  the  bit
       widths  you allow.  pnmtotiff chooses the smallest width you allow that
       allows it to index the entire color table.  If you don’t allow any such
       width,  pnmtotiff  fails.   Normally,  the  only  useful value for this
       option is 1,2,4,8, because a program either understands the 8 bit width
       (default) or understands them all.

       In a Baseline TIFF image, according to the 1992 TIFF 6.0 specification,
       4 and 8 are the only valid widths.  There are no formal standards  that
       allow any other values.

       This  option  was  added in June 2002.  Before that, only 8 bit indices
       were possible.

       A Tiff image may contain information about the resolution of the image,
       which  means  how big in real dimensions (centimeters, etc.) each pixel
       in the raster is.  You control that with  the  -xresolution,  -yresolu-
       tion, and -resolutionunit options.

       These options do not control how many pixels pnmtotiff generates or how
       much information is in the pixels.  They control only the value of tags
       that may or may not be used by whatever reads the image.

       The value of the -xresolution option is a floating point decimal number
       that tells how many pixels there are per unit of distance in the  hori-
       zontal  direction.   -yresolution  is analogous for the vertical direc-

       The unit of distance is given  by  the  value  of  the  -resolutionunit
       option.   That  value  is either inch, centimeter or none (or abbrevia-
       tions in, cm, or no).  none means the unit is arbitrary or unspecified.
       This  could mean that the creator and user of the image have a separate
       agreement as to what the unit is.  But usually, it just means that  the
       horizontal  and  vertical resolution values cannot be used for anything
       except to determine aspect ratio (because even though the unit is arbi-
       trary  or  unspecified,  it has to be the same for both resolution num-

       If you don’t specify -xresolution, the Tiff image does not contain hor-
       izontal  resolution  information.   Likewise  for -yresolution.  If you
       don’t specify -resolutionunit, the default is inches.

       Before Netpbm 10.16 (June 2003), -resolutionunit did not exist and  the
       resolution unit was always inches.

       You  can  use the -rowsperstrip option to set the number of rows (scan-
       lines) in each strip of data in the output file.  By default, the  out-
       put  file  has  the  number  of rows per strip set to a value that will
       ensure each strip is no more than 8 kilobytes long.

       The -append option tells pnmtotiff to add images to the existing output
       file  (a TIFF file may contain multiple images) instead of the default,
       which is to replace the output file.

       -append was new in Netpbm 10.27 (March 2005).


       There are myriad variations of the TIFF format, and this program gener-
       ates  only  a  few of them.  pnmtotiff creates a grayscale TIFF file if
       its input is a PBM (monochrome) or  PGM  (grayscale)  file.   pnmtotiff
       also  creates a grayscale file if it input is PPM (color), but there is
       only one color in the image.  If the input is a PPM  (color)  file  and
       there  are  256 colors or fewer, but more than 1, pnmtotiff generates a
       color palette TIFF file.  If there are more colors than that, pnmtotiff
       generates  an RGB (not RGBA) single plane TIFF file.  Use pnmtotiffcmyk
       to generate the cyan-magenta-yellow-black  ink  color  separation  TIFF

       The  number  of bits per sample in the TIFF output is determined by the
       maxval of the PNM input.  If the maxval is less than 256, the bits  per
       sample in the output is the smallest number that can encode the maxval.
       If the maxval is greater than or equal to 256, there are  16  bits  per
       sample in the output.

   Multiple Passes
       pnmtotiff  reads  the  input image once if it can, and otherwise twice.
       It needs that second pass (which  happens  before  the  main  pass,  of
       course)  to  analyze  the  colors in the image and generate a color map
       (palette) and determine if the image is grayscale.  So the second  pass
       happens only when the input is PPM.  And you can avoid it then by spec-
       ifying both the -truecolor and -color options.

        If the input image is small enough to fit in your system’s file cache,
       the  second  pass  is very fast.  If not, it requires reading from disk
       twice, which can be slow.

       When the input is from a file that cannot be rewound and reread, pnmto-
       tiff  reads the entire input image into a temporary file which can, and
       works from that.  Even if it needs only one pass.

       Before Netpbm 9.21 (December 2001), pnmtotiff always  read  the  entire
       image  into  virtual  memory  and  then  did  one, two, or three passes
       through the memory copy.  The -truecolor and  -color  options  did  not
       exist.   The  passes  through  memory  would involve page faults if the
       entire image did not  fit  into  real  memory.   The  image  in  memory
       required  considerably more memory (12 bytes per pixel) than the cached
       file version of the image would.


       tifftopnm(1), pnmtotiffcmyk(1), pnmdepth(1), pnm(1)


       Derived by Jef Poskanzer from ras2tiff.c, which is Copyright  (c)  1990
       by    Sun    Microsystems,    Inc.    Author:   Patrick   J.   Naughton

netpbm documentation             27 March 2005        Pnmtotiff User Manual(0)

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