POSTGRES(1)             PostgreSQL Server Applications             POSTGRES(1)


       postgres - run a PostgreSQL server in single-user mode


       postgres  [ -A   [ 0 ]  [ 1 ]  ]  [ -B nbuffers ]  [ -c name=value ]  [
       -d debug-level ]  [ --describe-config ]  [ -D datadir ]  [ -e ]  [ -E ]
       [ -f  [ s ]  [ i ]  [ t ]  [ n ]  [ m ]  [ h ]  ]  [ -F ]  [ -N ]  [ -o
       filename ]  [ -O ]  [ -P ]  [  [ -s ]  [ -t  [ pa ]  [ pl ]  [ ex ]   ]
       ]  [ -S work-mem ]  [ -W seconds ]  [ --name=value ]  database

       postgres  [ -A   [ 0 ]  [ 1 ]  ]  [ -B nbuffers ]  [ -c name=value ]  [
       -d debug-level ]  [ -D datadir ]  [ -e ]  [ -f  [ s ]  [ i ]  [ t ]   [
       n  ]  [ m ]  [ h ]  ]  [ -F ]  [ -o filename ]  [ -O ]  [ -p database ]
       [ -P ]  [  [ -s ]  [ -t  [ pa ]  [ pl ]  [ ex ]  ]  ]  [ -S work-mem  ]
       [ -v protocol ]  [ -W seconds ]  [ --name=value ]


       The  postgres  executable  is the actual PostgreSQL server process that
       processes queries. It is normally not called directly; instead a  post-
       master(1) multiuser server is started.

       The  second  form above is how postgres is invoked by the postmaster(1)
       (only conceptually, since both postmaster and postgres are in fact  the
       same  program);  it  should not be invoked directly this way. The first
       form invokes the server directly in interactive single-user  mode.  The
       primary  use for this mode is during bootstrapping by initdb(1).  Some-
       times it is used for debugging or disaster recovery.

       When invoked in interactive mode from the shell,  the  user  can  enter
       queries  and  the  results will be printed to the screen, but in a form
       that is more useful for developers than end users. But note  that  run-
       ning  a  single-user  server  is  not  truly suitable for debugging the
       server since no realistic interprocess communication and  locking  will

       When  running a stand-alone server, the session user will be set to the
       user with ID 1. This user does not actually have to exist, so a  stand-
       alone  server  can  be  used  to manually recover from certain kinds of
       accidental damage to the system catalogs. Implicit superuser powers are
       granted to the user with ID 1 in stand-alone mode.


       When  postgres  is  started  by  a  postmaster(1)  then it inherits all
       options set by the latter. Additionally, postgres-specific options  can
       be passed from the postmaster with the -o switch.

       You  can  avoid having to type these options by setting up a configura-
       tion file. See the documentation for details. Some (safe)  options  can
       also be set from the connecting client in an application-dependent way.
       For example, if the environment variable PGOPTIONS is set, then  libpq-
       based clients will pass that string to the server, which will interpret
       it as postgres command-line options.

       The options -A, -B, -c, -d, -D, -F, and --name have the  same  meanings
       as  the postmaster(1) except that -d 0 prevents the server log level of
       the postmaster from being propagated to postgres.

       -e     Sets the default date style to ‘‘European’’, that is DMY  order-
              ing of input date fields. This also causes the day to be printed
              before the month  in  certain  date  output  formats.   See  the
              documentation for more information.

       -o filename
              Send  all server log output to filename.  If postgres is running
              under the postmaster, this option is  ignored,  and  the  stderr
              inherited from the postmaster is used.

       -P     Ignore  system  indexes  when  reading  system tables (but still
              update the indexes when modifying the tables).  This  is  useful
              when recovering from damaged system indexes.

       -s     Print  time  information and other statistics at the end of each
              command.  This is useful for benchmarking or for use  in  tuning
              the number of buffers.

       -S work-mem
              Specifies  the amount of memory to be used by internal sorts and
              hashes  before  resorting  to  temporary  disk  files.  See  the
              description of the work_mem configuration parameter in the docu-

              Specifies the name of the database to  be  accessed.  If  it  is
              omitted it defaults to the user name.

       -E     Echo all commands.

       -N     Disables use of newline as a statement delimiter.

       There  are several other options that may be specified, used mainly for
       debugging purposes. These are listed here only for  the  use  by  Post-
       greSQL  system  developers.  Use of any of these options is highly dis-
       couraged. Furthermore, any of these options may disappear or change  in
       a future release without notice.

       -f { s | i | m | n | h }
              Forbids  the  use  of  particular scan and join methods: s and i
              disable sequential and index scans respectively, while n, m, and
              h disable nested-loop, merge and hash joins respectively.

              Note: Neither sequential scans nor nested-loop joins can be dis-
              abled completely; the -fs and -fn options simply discourage  the
              optimizer from using those plan types if it has any other alter-

       -O     Allows the structure of system tables to be  modified.  This  is
              used by initdb.

       -p database
              Indicates that this process has been started by a postmaster and
              specifies the database to use.  etc.

       -t pa[rser] | pl[anner] | e[xecutor]
              Print timing statistics for each query relating to each  of  the
              major  system  modules. This option cannot be used together with
              the -s option.

       -v protocol
              Specifies the version number of the frontend/backend protocol to
              be used for this particular session.

       -W seconds
              As  soon  as  this option is encountered, the process sleeps for
              the specified amount of seconds. This gives developers  time  to
              attach a debugger to the server process.

              This  option dumps out the server’s internal configuration vari-
              ables, descriptions, and defaults in tab-delimited COPY  format.
              It is designed primarily for use by administration tools.


       PGDATA Default data directory location

       For  others,  which  have little influence during single-user mode, see


       To cancel a running query, send the SIGINT signal to the postgres  pro-
       cess running that command.

       To  tell postgres to reload the configuration files, send a SIGHUP sig-
       nal. Normally it’s best to SIGHUP the postmaster instead; the  postmas-
       ter  will  in  turn  SIGHUP  each of its children. But in some cases it
       might be desirable to have only one postgres process reload the config-
       uration files.

       The postmaster uses SIGTERM to tell a postgres process to quit normally
       and SIGQUIT to terminate without the  normal  cleanup.   These  signals
       should  not  be  used  by users. It is also unwise to send SIGKILL to a
       postgres process — the postmaster will interpret this  as  a  crash  in
       postgres,  and will force all the sibling postgres processes to quit as
       part of its standard crash-recovery procedure.


       Start a stand-alone server with a command like

       postgres -D /usr/local/pgsql/data other-options my_database

       Provide the correct path to the database directory  with  -D,  or  make
       sure  that  the  environment  variable PGDATA is set.  Also specify the
       name of the particular database you want to work in.

       Normally, the stand-alone server treats newline as  the  command  entry
       terminator;  there  is no intelligence about semicolons, as there is in
       psql. To continue a command across multiple lines, you must type  back-
       slash just before each newline except the last one.

       But if you use the -N command line switch, then newline does not termi-
       nate command entry. In this case, the server  will  read  the  standard
       input  until  the end-of-file (EOF) marker, then process the input as a
       single command string. Backslash-newline is not  treated  specially  in
       this case.

       To quit the session, type EOF (Control+D, usually).  If you’ve used -N,
       two consecutive EOFs are needed to exit.

       Note that the stand-alone server does not provide  sophisticated  line-
       editing features (no command history, for example).


       initdb(1), ipcclean(1), postmaster(1)

Application                       2005-01-17                       POSTGRES(1)

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