PVMD(1PVM)                      PVM Version 3.4                     PVMD(1PVM)


       pvmd, pvmd3 - PVM daemon


       pvmd [ -options ] [ hostfile ]


       Pvmd3  is  a  daemon  process which coordinates unix hosts in a virtual
       machine.  One pvmd3 must run on each host in the group.   They  provide
       the  communication  and  process control functions needed by the user’s
       PVM processes.  The daemon can be started manually  with  a  host  file
       argument that will automatically start the remote pvmds.  The local and
       remote pvmds can also be started from the PVM console program pvm.

       The name of the daemon executable is pvmd3.  It is usually started by a
       shell script, $PVM_ROOT/lib/pvmd.

       [v3.4  and  later]  Before  running pvmd3, pvmd sources any commands in
       $HOME/.pvmprofile if this file exists.


       The following options may be specified on the command line when  start-
       ing the master pvmd or PVM console:

       -dmask  Set  pvmd  debug  mask.   Used to debug the pvmd or libpvm (not
               intended to be used to debug application  programs).   Mask  is
               the sum of the following bits and can be specified in hexadeci-
               mal (0x...), octal (0...) or decimal:
                   Bit     Information
                   0x1     Packet routing
                   0x2     Message routing and entry points
                   0x4     Task state
                   0x8     Slave pvmd startup
                   0x10    Host table updates
                   0x20    Select loop (below packet layer)
                   0x40    IP network
                   0x80    Multiprocessor nodes
                   0x100   Resource manager interface
                   0x200   Application (messages with no destination, etc.)
                   0x400   Wait contexts
                   0x800   Shared memory operations
                   0x1000  Semaphores
                   0x2000  Locks
                   0x4000  Message route control

       -nname  Specify an alternate hostname for the master pvmd to use.  Use-
               ful  when gethostname() returns a name not assigned to any net-
               work interface.

       The following options are used by the master pvmd when starting  slaves
       and  are  only  of interest to someone writing a hoster.  Don’t just go
       using them, now.

       -s     Start pvmd in slave mode.  Hostfile cannot be used,  five  addi-
              tional  parameters  must  be supplied: master pvmd index, master
              IP, master MTU, slave pvmd index, and slave IP.

       -S     Same as -s, but slave pvmd doesn’t wait  for  its  stdin  to  be
              closed  after printing its parameters.  Used for manual startup.

       -f     Slave doesn’t fork after configuration (useful if the  slave  is
              to be controlled or monitored by some process).


       Each  host  in the virtual machine must have an entry in the host file.
       Lines beginning with a splat ( # ), optionally preceded by  whitespace,
       are ignored.

       A simple host file might look like:

            # my first host file

       This  specifies the names of five hosts to be configured in the virtual

       The master pvmd for a group is started by hand on the localhost, and it
       starts  slaves  on  each  of the remaining hosts using the rsh or rexec
       command.  The master host may appear on any  line  of  the  host  file.
       Host names cannot be numeric (IP) addresses, because they are passed to
       rsh and rexec(), which usually don’t accept addresses.

       The simple format above works fine if you have the same login  name  on
       all five machines and the name of the master host in your .rhosts files
       on the other four.

       There are several host file options available:

              lo=NAME   Specifies an alternate login name (NAME) to use.

              so=pw     This is necessary when the remote  host  cannot  trust
                        the  master.   Causes  the master pvmd to prompt for a
                        password for the remote host in the tty  of  the  pvmd
                        (note  you can’t start the master using the console or
                        background it when using this option) you will see:
                             Password (honk.cs.utk.edu:manchek):
                        you should type your password  for  the  remote  host.
                        The startup will then continue as normal.

              dx=FILE   Specifies  the  path of the pvmd executable.  FILE may
                        be a simple filename, an absolute pathname, or a  path
                        relative  to  the  user’s home directory on the remote
                        host.  This is mainly useful to aid in  debugging  new
                        versions of PVM, but may have other uses.

              ep=PATH   Specifies a path for the pvmd to search for executable
                        program components when spawning a new  process.   The
                        path may have multiple elements, separated by colons (
                        : ).

              wd=PATH   Specifies a working directory  in  which  all  spawned
                        tasks on this host will execute.

              sp=VALUE  Specifies  the  relative  computational  speed of this
                        host compared to other  hosts  in  the  configuration.
                        VALUE is an integer in the range [1 - 1000000]

              bx=PATH   Specifies  the debugger program path.  Note: the envi-
                        ronment variable PVM_DEBUGGER can also be set.

              ip=NAME   Specifies an alternate IP address to use for the host.
                        As with host names (when ip= is not used), the address
                        must be a host name, not a numeric address, because it
                        is  passed to rsh and rexec().  This option allows one
                        to pick a specific network  interface  for  a  machine
                        without  using  the  interface’s name.  It can also be
                        used  to  create  a  virtual  machine  using  symbolic
                        (instead of actual) host names.

              so=ms     Rarely  used.   Causes the master pvmd to request user
                        to manually perform the startup of a pvmd on  a  slave
                        host  when rsh and rexec network services are disabled
                        but  IP  connectivity  exists.   See  section  "MANUAL

              id=VMID   A  new  feature in PVM 3.4.4 is the concept of a "Vir-
                        tual Machine ID".  You can now  set  the  VMID  to  an
                        arbitrary  string  and this will distinguish and allow
                        multiple virtual machines to run on the  same  set  of
                        hosts under the same userid.  (This feature was origi-
                        nally introduced by SGI in their commercial PVM  prod-
                        uct,  and  has now been generalized for the public PVM
                        system.)  This feature seems to be something that peo-
                        ple  often  want,  and  the  "id=" hostfile option (or
                        $PVM_VMID environment variable) is the cleanest way to
                        provide  this  functionality,  rather than overloading
                        the SHAREDTMP compiler flag and other internals.

                        *** Make Sure  ***  that  you  appropriately  set  the
                        $PVM_VMID  environment  variable  in  any  shells from
                        which PVM application tasks or the "pvm" console  will
                        be  run, or else they won’t know which virtual machine
                        to attach to!

                        By default, all hosts which are added to  the  virtual
                        machine  will  inherit  the  same  VMID.  If hosts are
                        added to the virtual machine which are  running  older
                        versions  of  PVM (prior to 3.4.4), then the VMID will
                        be ignored for those hosts, and hence  these  machines
                        can only be added to one virtual machine for the given
                        user.  The VMID need not be consistent on  every  host
                        in a virtual machine (although this is not necessarily

       A dollar sign ( $ ) in an option introduces a variable name, for  exam-
       ple  $PVM_ARCH.   Names are expanded from environment variables by each

       Each of the flags above has a default value.  These are:
              lo      The loginname on the master host.
              so      Nothing
              dx      $PVM_ROOT/lib/pvmd (or environment variable PVM_DPATH)
              ep      $HOME/pvm3/bin/$PVM_ARCH:$PVM_ROOT/bin/$PVM_ARCH
              wd      $HOME
              sp      1000
              bx      $PVM_ROOT/lib/debugger

       You can change these by adding a line with a star ( * )  in  the  first
       field followed by the options, for example:

            * lo=afriend so=pw

       This sets new default values for ’lo’ and ’so’ for the remainder of the
       host file, or until the next ’*’ line.  Options set  on  the  last  ’*’
       line also apply to hosts added dynamically using pvm_addhosts().

       Host  options  can  be  set  without  starting the hosts automatically.
       Information on host file lines beginning with ’&’ is  stored,  but  the
       hosts are not started until added using pvm_addhosts().

       Example host file:
            # host file for testing on various platforms
            # installed in /usr/local here
            sigi.cs            dx=/usr/local/pvm3/lib/pvmd
            # borrowed accts, "guest", don’t trust fonebone
            *                  lo=guest  so=pw
            # really painful one, must start it by hand and share a homedir
            & igor.firewall.com  lo=guest2  so=ms  ep=bob/pvm3/bin/$PVM_ARCH


       When  adding a host with this option set you will see on the tty of the
            *** Manual startup ***
            Login to "honk" and type:
            $PVM_ROOT/lib/pvmd -S -d0 -nhonk 1 80a9ca95:0cb6 4096 2 80a95c43:0000
            Type response:

       after typing the given command on host honk,  you  should  see  a  line
            ddpro<2312> arch<ALPHA> ip<80a95c43:0a8e> mtu<4096>

       type this line on the tty of the master pvmd.  You should then see:

       and the two pvmds should be able to communicate.

       Note you can’t start the master using the console or background it when
       using this option.


       You can force PVM to overload a host (start more than one pvmd  on  it)
       by  putting  a  ’$’ before the host name in the host file.  This is not
       recommended unless you know what you’re doing and have  a  good  reason
       for it.  You must build the PVM source with option OVERLOADHOST defined
       for it to work.

       You may also need to use the ip=  hostfile  option  to  define  several
       names with the same IP address.  If two or more hosts in a PVM have the
       same name, they cannot be identified uniquely.


       The preferred method of stopping all the pvmds is to give the halt com-
       mand  in the PVM console. This kills all PVM tasks, all the remote dae-
       mons, the local daemon, and finally the console itself.  If the  master
       pvmd  is killed manually it should be sent a SIGTERM signal to allow it
       to kill the remote pvmds and clean up various files.

       The pvmd can be killed in a manner that leaves the  file  /tmp/pvmd.uid
       behind  on  one  or  more  hosts.   Uid  is  the  numeric user ID (from
       /etc/passwd) of the user.  This will prevent  PVM  from  restarting  on
       that host.  Deletion of this file will fix this problem:

           rm ‘( grep $user /etc/passwd || ypmatch $user passwd )
                | awk -F: ’{print "/tmp/pvmd."$3; exit}’‘


         $PVM_ROOT/lib/pvmd  PVM daemon startup script
         $PVM_ROOT/lib/$PVM_ARCH/pvmd3 PVM daemon executable
         $HOME/.pvmprofile Shell commands read by pvmd before
           running pvmd3
         $HOME/pvm3/bin/$PVM_ARCH  Private PVM executable directory
         $PVM_ROOT/pvm3/bin/$PVM_ARCH  System PVM executable directory
         /tmp/pvmd.uid Pvmd local socket address
         /tmp/pvml.uid Pvmd runtime error log
         $HOME/.rhosts File allowing access to a host from
           other hosts


       pvm(1PVM), pvm_intro(1PVM), rhosts(5)

                                 06 May, 1994                       PVMD(1PVM)

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